SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS. Eric Kravitz Diane Miller ELED 305/02 Spring 2006 - Dr. Barrett. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION for the ADVANCEMENT of SCIENCE (AAAS).
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SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS Eric Kravitz Diane Miller ELED 305/02 Spring 2006 - Dr. Barrett
AMERICAN ASSOCIATION for the ADVANCEMENT of SCIENCE (AAAS) • Founded in 1848, AAAS is an international non-profit organization dedicated to advancing science around the world by serving as an educator, leader, spokesperson and professional association. • In addition to organizing membership activities, AAAS publishes the journal Science, as well as many scientific newsletters, books and reports, and spearheads programs that raise the bar of understanding for science worldwide.
There are seven Basic Skills Observing Classifying Measuring Inferring Predicting Communicating Using Number Relationships BASIC SKILLS
Observing • Using the 5 senses (see, hear, touch, smell, taste) to find out about objects and events, their characteristics, properties, differences, similarities, and changes How or Why: Observations are recorded
Classifying • Grouping or ordering objects or events according to similarities or differences in properties How or Why: Lists, tables, or charts are generated
Measuring • Comparing an unknown quantity with a known (metric units, time, student- generated frames of reference) • Observations are quantified using proper measuring devices and techniques How or Why: Measurements are recorded in an orderly and systematic fashion with labeled units of measure.
Inferring • Interpreting or explaining observations How or Why: More than one inference may be presented to explain an observation
Predicting • Forming an idea of an expected result - not a guess - but a belief of what will occur based upon present knowledge and understandings, observations and inferences • How or Why: A written or oral explanation to clarify ideas and to help reveal any misconceptions or missing information.
Communicating • Using the written and spoken work, graphs, demonstrations, drawings, diagrams, or tables to transmit information and ideas to others How or Why: To reflect the true nature of science, ideas must be shared.
UsingNumber Relationships • Applying numbers and their mathematical relationships to make decisions How or Why: Numbers are basic to science - mathematical knowledge is applied
INTEGRATED SKILLS There are seven Integrated Skills: • Making Models • Defining Operationally • Collecting Date • Interpreting Date • Identifying and Controlling Variables • Formulating Hypotheses (Hypothesizing) • Experimenting
Making Models • Constructing mental, verbal, or physical representations of ideas, objects, or events to clarify explanations or demonstrate relationships. How or Why: Constructing models helps clarify ideas
DefiningOperationally • Creating a definition by describing what is done and observed How or Why: Definitions (in the students own language) are in context of students' experiences - not from the glossary, not to be memorized
Collecting Data • Gathering and recording information about observations and measurements in a systematic way
InterpretingData • Organizing, analyzing, and synthesizing data using tables, graphs, and diagrams to locate patterns that lead to the construction of inferences, predictions, or hypotheses.
Identifying and Controlling Variables • Manipulating one factor to investigate the outcome of an event while other factors are held constant. How or Why: • Young children become confused with multiple variables. • Students need practice in identifying variables that affect outcomes
Formulating Hypotheses (Hypothesizing) • Making educated guesses based on evidence that can be tested through experimentation.
Experimenting • Designing one's own experiment to test a hypothesis using procedures to obtain reliable data How or Why: • All basic and integrated skills to formulate a problem, collect data, and pose a solution are used
Experimenting (continued) . • Doing a teacher-orchestrated science activity is NOT experimenting. • Student demonstrates understanding and application of scientific method though inquiry, research and self-design of experiment to test a hypothesis.
SUMMARY • In order for students to make sense of how the world works and to learn to think critically and independently, the Basic Process Skills and the Integrated Science Skills need to be integrated into their experiments.
http://www.aaas.org http://education.shu.edu/pt3grant/zinicola/skills_source.html http://www.educ.sfu.ca/narstsite/publications/research/skill.htm http://www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/fellows/sci_olympiad/pslsl_training_hammond.pdf http://arapaho.nsuok.edu/~adams001/ProcessSkills.htm http://www.cedu.niu.edu/scied/presentations/stars2/sld001.htm http://www.glc.k12.ga.us/pandp/science/in-basic.htm http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/science810/scdeve.htm Resource bibliography
Relevant Websites: • http://www.edhelper.com/science_process_skills.htm • http://www.dlese.org/dds/query.do?q=science%20process%20skills&s=0 • http://www.aea11.k12.ia.us/curriculum/science/processskills.html • http://www.ghbooks.com/activity/activity.cfm?bookid=18325&page=415 • http://www.studystack.com/menu-7896 • http://www.homeedsa.com/Articles/Fundamental%20Skills%20in%20Science.asp • http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/research/themes/science/integretedactivitybasedscience/ • http://www.aplusvideorentals.com/listing.asp?categoryID=01&subcategoryID=01
Science Experiments Web Sites • http://www.scilitlinks.org/experimentalflight.htm • http://web2.airmail.net/kboyle/Fairlink.htm • http://unr.edu/homepage/crowther/ejse/papertowel.html • http://www.magichouse.com/Images/lessonplans.pdf • http://www.the-aps.org/education/sixstarscience/ • http://www.mcrel.org/whelmers/whelm67.asp • http://schools.shorelineschools.org/home_education/Members/Online/science/unit_1/unit.htm
GROUP PROJECT GRAND FINALE • http://suzyred.com/sciencesong.html