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America: Moving into the 20th Century AP United States History 2009
Great Change in America EQ: How did America change after the civil war?
Politics of the 19th Century Republican Party: Captured all of the presidencies except two from Lincoln to Wilson. Voter turnout averaged at 78%. People were into politics. Who were the parties? Republicans: Northerners and African Americans; Protestant, Old Stock; Middle Class Democrats: White Southerners; Catholics; Immigrants and the poor This resulted in strong party loyalty, high voter participations and close elections
Politics of the 19th Century Republican Party: Split into two different factions within the party. Stalwarts: Led by Roscoe Conkling. Traditional, Professional, and relied on the Boss and the Machine. Half Breeds: Led by James Blaine. They wanted to reform the party. Election of 1880 Republican James Garfield (Half Breed) ran with Chester Arthur (stalwart) as his Vice President. They won a decisive victory. Issue I - Civil Service Reform: Garfield wanted to attack the corruption in politics by requiring that public officials demonstrate that they are qualified for their positions.
Politics of the 19th Century Garfield Shot: On July 2, 1881 President Garfield was shot in a Washington Railroad Station. He stayed alive for three months but eventually died. President Arthur: Arthur took over and tried to follow through with some of Garfield’s program, particularly Civil Service Reform. Pendleton Act: Arthur passed this act, which required a civil service exam for all government employees. Election of 1884 Grover Cleveland wins this election, the only democrat during this period and the only president to serve two terms non-consecutively. Issue II - Tariff: Cleveland wanted to broaden the market for American goods. Lowering the tariff would do just that.
Politics of the 19th Century Election of 1888 Tariff: This issue became a driving factor in the election. The House and the Senate could not agree. That stalemate led the way for Benjamin Harrison to beat Cleveland in the election. Issue III - Trusts: The combination of businesses threatened the American economy. Harrison hoped to pass legislation that stopped monopolies. Sherman Anti Trust Act: This prohibited the combination of corporations - outlawing monopolies. The goal was to promote competition among the smaller businesses. Election of 1892 Cleveland is re-elected and the Tariff is reduced. This opens up foreign markets to American goods, and plays a role in the 20th Century American Foreign Policy.
Agrarian Revolt Farmers Grangers: Farmers were having major problems in the 19th century. In order to help themselves, they created a network to teach each other new techniques. This group eventually promoted political action. Granger Laws: These laws tried to curb railroad rates and practices. This movement led to another part of the agrarian movement. Farmer’s Alliance: Farmers in the south banded together establishing banks, stores and processing plants. This pushed the movement into a new phase. Populist Party: Farmers started their own political party and created the Omaha Platform in 1892, which wanted several things such as: public ownership of Railroads, abolish the gold standard and direct election of senators.
Panic of 1893 March 1893 Philadelphia and Reading Railroads: these two RR declared bankruptcy, as they could not pay back British loans. Collapse in the Stock Market: The stock market fell as result of these failures. Many businesses were tied to the Railroad business. Banks Fail: Banks invested in the Stock Market and the crash triggered a series of Bank Failures, leading to contraction of credit. Total Damage: 8,000 businesses, 156 RR, 400 banks failed; low agricultural prices fell worse; 1 million workers lost their jobs (20% of workforce)
Gold Standard Silver Question: Gold was the basis for all currency in the United States. For every dollar, there was gold to back it up. With the panic, many people wanted to expand the currency by using silver. Issue IV - Silver v. Gold: Silver was not worth as much as gold and often times it dropped in value, making it a bad resource to pin the American dollar. This became the debate for the Election of 1896. Election of 1896 McKinley V. Bryan: Willaim McKinley (Rep) ran against William Jennings Bryan (Dem & Populist). Bryan made a famous Cross of Gold Speech saying that if the U.S. did not embrace silver then they would crucified on a cross of gold. Gold Standard: Bryan lost and the Gold Standard remained until 1933 when Franklin Roosevelt took the United States off the Gold Standard.
The Rise of Progressivism Beliefs: Society was capable of change and growth was the nation’s destiny. The natural laws of Laissez Faire and Social Darwinism were not sufficient. 1. Human intervention was necessary 2. Government should play a significant role “Progressive Impulse” 1. Anti Monopoly - Fear of concentrated power 2. Social Cohesion - Individuals are a part of a web of social relationships. 3. Organization and Efficiency - Social order was the result of social organization
The Rise of Progressivism Voice of the Progressives Muckrakers: crusading journalists who exposed the issues of society. 1. Lincoln Steffens - Wrote for McClures Magazine about the Boss and Machine politics. 2. IdaTarbell - Exposed big business. 3. Thomas Nast - Political Cartoonist who destroyed Tammany Hall Community Outreach 1.Hull House: Jane Addams set up settlement housing for the poor, immigrants and others who needed help 2. Social Gospel: Some organizations such as the Salvation Army used religion to drive reform.
The Rise of Progressivism Women Suffrage Professional Woman: Women were getting involved in Teaching and Nursing for the first time in U.S. History. They started a movement toward women’s suffrage. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Believed that women were the “arbiter of her own destiny” and deserved the same rights as men. She was one of many to lead the movement. National American Women Suffrage Association (NAWSA): Anna Howard Shaw and Carrie Chapman brought membership to 2 million in 1917. The movement was noticed and the 19th Amendment passed - guaranteeing women’s suffrage. Temperance Movement Alcohol was seen as the root of all domestic problems, called a “sinister trust.” This movement was primarily run by women. Women’s Christian Temperance. Union and the Anti Saloon League pushed for a bill to ban alcohol. The result was the 18th Amendment, which led to prohibition
The Rise of Progressivism Civil Rights Booker T. Washington: Believed that African Americans should be happy that they were no longer slaves. He argued for immediate self improvement for all African Americans. His famous “Atlanta Compromise” stated that African Americans should integrate themselves into white society. W.E.B. Dubois: Accused Washington if supporting segregation. He argued that education and legislation would lead equality. He wanted all African Americans to get a full university education. He was also one of the founders of the NAACP Progressive Presidencies: There were two presidents who led progressive administrations - Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.
American Foreign Policy EQ: How was American foreign policy a driving force for change in the 20th century?
New American Foreign Policy Alfred Thayer Mahan: Wrote a book entitled -Influence of Sea Power on History, which argued that in order to be a world power the United States must have 1. Strong Navy; 2. Ports around the world. Frederick Jackson Turner: Stated in his Frontier Thesis that it had closed. With that in mind, the US looked elsewhere for new markets and something to fill that void Panic of 1893: The Depression led America to look at new markets for its goods. This is the seed for globalization. Teddy Roosevelt: Assistant Secretary of the Navy used his influence to strengthen the Navy with this idea in mind.
Spanish American War Cuba: The Spanish and the Cubans are fighting a war for Cuban Independence. The United States saw this as an opportunity to expand into other regions while protecting the United States. Yellow Press:William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer fought a newspaper war for circulation. They would sensationalize the headlines. Public Opinion: Americans wanted the President to do something about the issues in Cuba. Some in the government also saw it as an opportunity to bring America onto the world stage.
Spanish American War The Maine: The US ship Maine exploded in Havana Harbor. This incident prompted people in America to want war with Spain. The chant “Remember the Maine” became a rally cry for war. Telegram: The United States intercepted a telegram saying that McKinley (The President at the time) would not do anything and had the backbone of a chocolate éclair. The Splendid Little War: McKinley asked for war and received it. It would only last three months, but many believed it was exactly what the United States needed to establish itself in the World.
Spanish American War Dewey: At the onset of war, Mckinley sent Admiral Dewey to the Philippines and they confronted the Spanish Fleet. Dewey was able to destroy the entire fleet with very little American casualties - establishing dominance in that region. Rough Riders: While Dewey attacked the fleet, the Military landed in Cuba and Puerto Rico to attack the Spanish, while also blockading the island. Teddy Roosevelt led the famous Rough Riders in battle, and the United States beat the Spanish.
Spanish American War Treaty of Paris: At the end of the war the United States acquired Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. They paid the Spanish 20 Million dollars to soften the blow. American Foreign Policy: American foreign policy changed after the war. Two very good examples are: 1. Filipino War: The US was involved in a war in the Philippines on the same scale as the Iraq conflict. There was great debate within America if we had the right to be there. 2. Cuba: The US passed the Platt Amendment to the Cuban constitution, which gave us a base in that region (Mahan’s idea), allowed us to intervene in their affairs if necessary, and banned Cuba from making treaties with other nations.
The Rise of Teddy Roosevelt In the election of 1900, William McKinley ran with Teddy Roosevelt as his Vice President. Soon after the inauguration, in 1901, McKinley is assassinated and Teddy Roosevelt became President of the United States. Roosevelt saw the office as an opportunity to do something for the public good. He combined the elements of the Progressive Era and the New American Foreign Policy to usher in the Modern Presidency.
TR: The Square Deal(Progressive Presidency) Railroad Industry: TR wanted to solve the issue of the Railroads for the American people. He issued the Hepburn Railroad Act, which gave the government the authority to inspect the books and ensure fair practices. Food, Drug and Labor Reform: TR passed the Pure Food and Drug Act to regulate the sale of dangerous or ineffective medicine, establishing the FDA; Also passed the Meat Inspection Act after reading Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle, which exposed the issues in the meat business. Conservation: TR established the National Parks system with Gifford Pinchot, his chief forester; He also used federal funds under the New Lands Reclamation Act to construct dams Trust Buster: TR did some work to curb monopolies and even sided with labor in the Coal Mining Strike of 1902
TR: Speak Softly, Carry a Big Stick(New American Foreign Policy) Nobel Peace Prize: When the Japanese and the Russians were at war, TR brought them to Portsmouth, NH and negotiated a peace deal with the countries winning the Nobel Peace Prize. On the side, he made a deal with the Japanese that would protect US trade in China. Great White Fleet: When the Japanese reneged on the deal, TR responded by sending out the Great White Fleet of destroyers around the world. It was an act to demonstrate the power of the United States. Roosevelt Corollary: When Latin American countries were threatened by European Nations over debts, TR issued the RC to the Monroe Doctrine. This stipulated that the US had the right to 1. Oppose European Intervention in the Hemisphere & 2. Interfere in the domestic affairs of its neighbors (Latin America). Panama Canal: TR made a deal with Panama to build the canal after he supported their revolution from Colombia. He did it without the advice of congress and after the original deal fell through with the Colombian government.
Election of 1912 William Howard Taft: Taft was elected to the presidency in 1908 after TR left. He did not follow up on the Progressive measures that TR held sacred. When TR came back to NY, he went for the republican nomination to run for president. Progressive Bull Moose Party: TR did not get the Republican Nomination so he went off an formed his own progressive party to run in the election. It was during the Election of 1912 that he was shot before he gave a speech and went on to give the speech anyway. Election of 1912: Taft and TR split the ticket. Taft 23%, TR 27%, and Woodrow Wilson received 42% of the vote. Wilson became president and he ushered in his own series of reforms for the American people.
Wilsonian Progressivism New Freedom Underwood Simmons Tariff: Cut the tariff substantially in an effort to embrace the concept of globalization and hurt the trusts. Federal Reserve Act: Created 12 regional banks to assist the smaller banks. These federally funded banks would give loans and held assets in reserve. Closest thing we had to a National Bank, since the bank in Jackson’s era. Federal Trade Commission: First time that the federal government investigated the practices on Wall Street - increasing government authority. Louis Brandeis: Appointed the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice. Keating Owen Act: A child labor law that would not allow the transport of goods made by children across state lines. Smith Lever Act: Matched state grants that were aimed at helping Farmers. Wilson’s Foreign Policy Measures, however, were interrupted by WWI
World War I Chaos in Europe: On June 28, 1914 Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand (heir to the throne of Austro-Hunagria) was assassinated by a Serbian Nationalist. Due to alliances and treaties, Europe was in a state of war. The organized into the Triple Entente (Britain, France, Russia) and the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austro-Hungary, and Italy) The United States, however, was torn on the issue. U.S. Reaction: Since the United States consisted of so many immigrants, it was difficult to choose sides. That being said, due to the New American Foreign Policy, US banks were tied to foreign markets and needed them to survive. Most prevalent on the list were the British. JP Morgan had a great deal of money tied to a British victory. Submarine Warfare: Since the United States was still trading with Britain and France, the Germans were attacking American shipping with U-Boats. The Lusitania, a British ocean liner, was carrying arms to Europe and sunk by Germans killing 128 Americans. After the incident, the Germans promised to leave American shipping alone.
World War I Leading to war Zimmerman Note: The British intercepted a telegram from the Germans to the Mexicans. It read that that if the Mexicans entered the war on Germany’s side and attack the United States, then at the end of the war the Mexicans will get back their land lost from the Mexican War. Unrestricted Submarine warfare: In addition to the telegram, the Germans attacked ALL American merchant shipping, thinking that the US could never get involved in the war in time to make a difference. War: Wilson was able to get a war declaration from congress. Though it should be noted that there were some in congress who did not want to get involved in a world war. Peace without victory: Wilson stated that the US had no “Material Gains” in mind He wanted to bring Peace to the world - creating a new world order. He believed that he could use the same progressive attitudes in fostering peace at the end of the war that America had used to make themselves better.
World War I War at Home Creel Commission: George Creel led the Committee on Public Information, which fought a propaganda war to foster support in America. They crafted recruiting posters for enlistments, war bonds, and dehumanizing the Germans. For example: Sour Kraut became Liberty Cabbage. Espionage Act of 1917: This act prevented citizens from speaking out against the war. In a famous Supreme Court Ruling, Schenk V. the United States, a citizen was told that he was causing a panic by handing out leaflets against the war. The court claimed it was akin to shouting fire in a crowded theater creating a “Clear and Present Danger.” Liberty Bonds: The government, in an effort to pay for the war encouraged people to buy bonds and support the war. War Industries Board: Headed by Bernard Baruch, this coordinated the purchase of military supplies, gearing up the economy for the war.
World War I Battlefront Trench Warfare: This war brought a new type of fighting that involved trenches and powerful weapons. Men would fight for control of the trenches in No-Man’s Land, the place in between the trenches. No Man’s Land was riddled with mines, obstacles and barbed wire, making it nearly impossible to get through. Selective Service Act: Wilson drafted 3 million soldiers and another 2 million enlisted in the military. Battles: The US were involved in few battles. Chateau Thierry was important to moving the Germans out of France and the Battle of Argonne Forest pushed the Germans back into Germany. Argonne lasted 7 weeks and went for 200 miles. This was the final battle of the war - on the 11th day at the 11th hour of the 11th Month in 1918 the Germans surrendered. Casualties: France - 1.7 Million, Britain - One third of the men born between 1892-1895 and 1 million from the empire, Germany 2 Million, Austro Hungary - 1.5 Million, Russia 1.7 million, US - 112,000 half to influenza, it battle.
World War I Peace Conference: Versailles Big Four: The Leaders of the peace conference were Vittorio Orlando (Italy), Georges Clemenceau (France), David Lloyd George (Britain), and Woodrow Wilson (US). 14 Points: Wilson came with a plan for peace. The fourteen points were broken down as follows - First Five: Principles to govern freedom of the seas, Next Eight: Post war Boundaries (Not much different than Pre War Boundaries), and 14th Point - A League of Nations. No Material Gains - Very Progressive Treaty of Versailles: The other countries wanted the Germans to pay and instead of using the first 13 points made the following provisions: 1. War Guilt Clause: The war was Germany’s fault and in turn lost a great deal of land and could no longer have a standing Army. 2. War Reparations: The Germans had to pay the other countries for the loss from the war. 3. League of Nations: The European Nations agreed that there should be a world organization and approved this measure for the treaty. Wilson needed to get the Treaty passed through congress, but dealt with a lot of resistance
World War I Getting the Peace Treaty Approved Congress: The United States did not want to approve the treaty because of the League of nations. They saw this as a way to get the United States involved in a foreign war. May in America did not like this war and the league was not popular. Wilson: The president went around the country stumping the league to the people in an effort to get them to write their congresspeople to approve the league. So involved in this endeavor was he that he collapsed from a cerebral thrombosis and was unable to perform his duties as a president for the rest of his term. The Treaty: Congress never passed the treaty and never joined the league of nations. Warren Harding: In 1920, Harding was elected to the presidency and it ushered in a new age for America.
The 1920s and the Depression EQ: How did America deal with crisis?
The 1920s in America A New Economy Technology: In the 20s America experiences new innovations in technology. These innovations resulted in the BULL MARKET - meaning that many people were making money. 1. Automobile Industry: The Automobile, led by Henry Ford represented innovation on the assembly line and with the American consumer. It helped other industries such as steel, rubber and oil. 2.Radio: This new invention brought a new culture to America. Everything was centered around the radio. Newscasts, serials, all pointed to a new method of communicating information. 3. Planes and Trains: Trains became much more efficient and regulated. The plane became the center for the transportation of goods and eventually used commercially for travel. Charles Lindberg made his famous flight from New York to Paris - bringing the Spirit of St. Louis into the spotlight. 4. Appliances: The array of new appliances (dish washers, washing machines, vacuums) made house work easier, but also helped the economy as new products resulted in many people working to bring those products to the market.
The 1920s in America Labor and Farming Times were better in the 20s for the workers, but farmers continued to struggle 1. Better Working Conditions: many factory owners embraced the 8 hour work week. Labor Unions were indifferent, mostly because people were making a lot of money on their products. 2. Farmers: Ironically, the new methods in farming created a problem with prices as there were too many goods in the market - hurting the farmers.
The 1920s in AmericaAmerican culture was very pervasive and powerful. It set the tone for the rest of the century in many ways. Women 1. Flapper: Women led a revolution against the norms of society, promoting an independent woman. 2. Margaret Sanger: Promoted the use of birth control (very radical at the time) in a weekly newspaper in an effort to empower women to take control of their lives. She argued that poverty was the related to overpopulation. Literature 1. F. Scott Fitzgerald: The Great Gatsby illuminated the issues surrounding the American Dream and how Americans were materialistic. 2. TS Eliot: Poems such as the Hollow Men and Wasteland, depicted a society in decay after the First World War - “This is the way the world ends, not with a bang, but with a wimper.” 3. Ernest Hemingway: Most known for his novels, wrote in short, terse prose about the issues of the age as well as the First World War.
The 1920s in America Prohibition 1. Bootlegging: Illegal sale of alcohol led to organized crime. Mobsters such as Al Capone came to power from this. 2. Speak Easies: These illegal bars were hidden from the public, but people went to drink. Strong Nativism 1. Emergency Immigration Act 1921: Put a quota on the immigration into the United States. 3% of the number of a nationality living in the US according to the 1910 census were allowed to immigrate into the country 2. National Origins Act 1924: Strengthened the above act by changing it to 2% and basing the number on the 1890 census. 3. KKK: This strong sentiment toward nativism led to the rise if a new Klan who hated not only the “freed slaves” but also anyone not truly “American.”
The 1920s in America Religious Fundamentalism 1. Scopes Trial: There was a growing sentiment in some parts of the country to stay away from evolution in the classroom. A Tenn law was challenged by a teacher. Clarence Darrow, a member of the ACLU ( American Civil Liberties Union) put evolution on trial. Harlem Renaissance 1. Langston Hughes: In his poetry, Hughes wrote “I am negro and beautiful,” illuminating the beauty of the African Americans. 2. Jazz: Louis Armstrong and others ushered in a unique American art form.
The 1920s in America Warren Harding 1. Age of Normalcy: When elected, Harding stated that this would be an “age of normalcy.” In other words, America would focus on themselves and not foreign nations. 2. Teapot Dome Scandal: Involved Attorney General Harry Daughtery and Senator Albert Fall leasing oil reserves to big business. Fall received millions in “loans” from the businesses (bribes). Harding died in office from food poisoning resulting in a heart attack. Calvin Coolidge 1. Gov. of Mass: The former Gov of Mass. Was most known for how he handled the Boston Police Strike. Where Harding was very personable, Coollidge was the opposite. Coolidge was elected again in 1924 and chose not to run for another term in 1928. Instead Herbert Hoover ran against Al Smith and won
The Great CrashAccording to John Kenneth Galbraith • Poor Distribution of Wealth: 5% of the population controlled 33% of the money in America. • Poor Corporate Structure: American businesses were set up haphazardly, resulting in problems that led to unemployment and bankruptcy. • Poor Banking Structure: The banking system had no safeguards. They invested the people’s money in the stock market. When the market crashed, people lost their savings. • Poor Economic Intelligence: There was confusion on how to invest your money. People were Buying stocks on Margin (putting very little down and financing the rest) so when the market crashed they lost millions of dollars in assets. • Dubious Foreign Trade: We loaned money to the Germans (Dawes Plan), which they used to pay back war reparations to countries like Britain and France. Those countries used that money to pay the United States back. When we cut off the loans to Germany - it set a chain reaction that hurt everyone.
The Depression Unfolds Bank Failures: Due to the stock market falling banks had to close because their money disappeared with the crash. Run on the Bank: In addition to the market collapse, people lost faith in the banking institution and attempted to take out their money, which led to more issues.
The Depression Unfolds Foreclosures: People lost their homes because the bank could not handle the debt. They were forced to live in the street. “Hooverville”: Shanty Towns popped up all over the country from these people who were forced out of their homes. These small communities were called Hoovervilles after the president.
The Depression Unfolds Foreclosures: Farmers also lost their homes as result of the crisis and were forced to leave their homes as well. Dust Bowl: To make matters worse, the farmers experienced the worst drought in American history. Dust storms forced many farmers to leave their homes and make an exodus for the city. Most of them came from Oklahoma, earning the nickname “Oakies.”
The Depression Unfolds Unemployment: Reaching an all-time high in 1932 (25%) this was the worst time for workers of all walks and ages.
The Depression Unfolds Bonus Army: In an effort to gain some income, WWI Vets marched on Washington to get their pension promised to them by congress. Originally, they were supposed to receive the bonus in 1945, but the vets wanted in earlier. Hoover’s Response: Hoover sent to Army to tear down the demonstration (Tent City).
The Election of 1932 Here Comes FDR: Franklin Roosevelt defeated Herbert Hoover in a landslide victory. The New Deal: At his inauguration FDR said that “The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.” He argued that people would soon be able to trust the government and the economic system.
The New Deal First 100 Days 15 Major Bills, 15 major Addresses • Bank Holiday: FDR called for a bank holiday to reorganized them and bring back confidence in our system. • Gold Standard: FDR took the country off the gold standard in an effort to expand the currency. This was done in an effort to Prime the Pump and get the economy moving again. • Fireside Chats: FDR used the radio to tell the American people about his programs to help the economy. People would sit around the radio and listen to his speeches. Around America people were so confident in Roosevelt that they had pictures of him up in their homes
The New Deal FIRST NEW DEAL • Brain Trust: FDR asked Columbian Professors to design a system to jumpstart the economy. • The Structure: In order to teach you the New Deal I organized it into the following categories: Banking, Farming, Industry and Relief • The Function: Focus on what these programs did. Do not try to memorize every single program.
The New Deal Commercial and Investment Banking • SEC: The Security Exchanges Commission was developed to police the stock market and watch for illegal activities. • FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was developed to bring confidence back into the system by insuring money in the banks up to 2500.00
The New Deal Farming • AAA: The Agricultural Adjustment Act paid farmers for the their surplus of goods in an effort to bring up the prices of those goods. • The Supreme Court: The courts struck this measure down because they believed that it was price fixing. In the Second New Deal, FDR passed the FSA (Farm Security Administration) which gave Farmers loans to relocate or enrich the soil.
The New Deal Industrial Recovery • NIRA: The National Industrial Recovery Act created two programs • The National Recovery Administration (NRA) which secured collective bargaining between workers and management under Section 7(a) of the act. • The Public Works Administration (PWA) created jobs for people by building roads, schools, etc. • The Supreme Court: The courts struck this measure down because they believed that the government had no business to tell management they had to collectively bargain with the employees and it disagreed with section 7(a). While the PWA was not a problem, it was also shut down because they were both a part of the NIRA.