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Pilgrims and Puritans: Calvinism comes to 17 th Century America. “From the Reformation to the Constitution” Bill Petro your friendly neighborhood historian. www.billpetro.com/v7pc. Objectives By the end of this session you should be able to. Trace the growth of religion in America

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pilgrims and puritans calvinism comes to 17 th century america

Pilgrims and Puritans:Calvinism comes to 17th Century America

“From the Reformation to the Constitution”

Bill Petro

your friendly neighborhood historian

www.billpetro.com/v7pc

objectives by the end of this session you should be able to
ObjectivesBy the end of this session you should be able to
  • Trace the growth of religion in America
  • Examine differences between Pilgrims & Puritans
  • Detail distinctives of American Puritanism
  • Outline the decline of New England theology
reformation traditions

Luther - Melanchthon

1517

Lutheran

Calvin - Beza

1532

French-Swiss

}

Zwingli - Bullinger

Reformed

Presbyterian

Scottish Presbyterian

Dutch Reformed

1519

German-Swiss

Henry VIII - Cranmer

Grebel – Manz - Simonsz

1525

1536

English

Swiss Brethren

Reformation Traditions

Lutheranism

Episcopal

Anabaptist

Congregational

Mennonites

English Separatists

English Baptists

Anglican

Episcopal

Church of England

american church history
American Church History

1787

1865

Calvinism

Arminianism

Biblistic Rationalism

Liberalism

Subjectivism

Existentialism

Theocentrism Anthropocentrism Liberalism

pilgrims
Pilgrims
  • England → Holland → England → America
  • 1620: Plymouth to Plymouth Rock
  • 102 passengers
  • Mayflower Compact
  • Plymouth Colony:1st permanent New England settlement
first thanksgiving
First Thanksgiving
  • 1621
  • Gov Wm. Bradford proclaimed:“a day of thanksgiving and prayer”
  • More:billpetro.com/holidayhistory
puritans
Puritans
  • Non-separating Congregationalists
    • Each congregation independent
  • Church of England: true church
  • Repentant church membership
  • England might imitate their “New England.”
puritan grievances
Puritan Grievances
  • Marian Exiles returned under Elizabeth
  • James I: a sympathetic Protestant?
  • Charles I married Henrietta Maria, Catholic princess
  • Catholic lords given important posts
  • Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud’s “Roman practices”
john winthrop
John Winthrop
  • 1630-1649
  • Governor of Massachusetts Bay Company
  • Founder of Boston
  • Sermon: “Model of Christian Charity”
    • “City upon a Hill”
pilgrims vs puritans
Pilgrims vs. Puritans

Few

Many

Early (1620)

Later (1629-30)

Poor class

Upper middle class

Uneducated

Educated

Separatists from state church

Loyal

Settled in Plymouth

Salem, Boston

Wm. Bradford, Wm. Brewster

John Endicott, Miles Standish,

John Winthrop

puritan myths vs reality
Puritan: Myths vs. Reality

“Haunting fear that someone, somewhere may be happy”

Books, music, beer, rum, swam, skated, bowled

Wore black

Blue, violet, green, yellow

Narrow minded

+100: Oxford & Cambridge

“Dumme Doggs”

Established Harvard after 6 years

Women sheltered

Literate, well read, managed household

Song-less

A capella, in unison

Minority

1776: 75% of Puritan roots

education in puritan new england
Education in Puritan New England

Private EducationReading, Writing

Grammar SchoolGrammar, Rhetoric, ArithmeticLatin, Greek, Hebrew

CollegeArts: Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, AstronomyPhilosophies: Metaphysics, Ethics, Natural ScienceAlso: Greek, Hebrew, Ancient History

plain puritan sermons
“Plain” Puritan Sermons
  • Text
  • Doctrine
  • Uses
  • Applications
new england bible commonwealths
New England Bible Commonwealths
  • Sought guidance of Scripture for all aspects of citizen’s lives
  • Scripture authority in criminal statutes
the english bible in the 16 th century
The English Bible in the 16th Century
  • Wycliffe 1380
  • Gutenberg 1450
  • Tyndale 1525
  • Coverdale 1535
  • Matthew 1537
  • Taverner 1539
  • Great 1539
  • Geneva 1560
  • Bishops’ 1568
  • Rheims-Douai (NT) 1582
  • King James 1611

Less than

100 years:

9 translations

geneva bible
Geneva Bible
  • 1560 in Geneva
  • Leader: William Whittingham, sister of John Calvin
  • Used by the Pilgrims & Puritans in New England
  • 1560 – 1630: 200 editions
  • Bible of Shakespeare, Bunyan, Cromwell’s Army
kjv bible
KJV Bible
  • Committee of English scholars between 1607-1611
  • "Authorized Version”
  • 1st carried by John Winthrop to Massachusetts in 1630
  • Supplanted Geneva Bible
puritan ecclesiastical theory

Church Privileges:

  • Communion
  • Church Offices

GraceCovenant

ChurchCovenant

  • Political Privileges:
  • Elections
  • Civic Offices
  • Spiritual
  • Invisible
  • Physical
  • Visible
Puritan Ecclesiastical Theory
decline of new england theology
Decline of New England Theology
  • 1643: 11% church membership
    • Preaching of the “Jeremiad”
  • 1657: Half-Way Covenant
    • Secularized state
  • 1677: Stoddardeanism: Very open Communion
    • Secularized church
  • 1691: Massachusetts a Royal Colony
    • No religious bans
  • 1692: Salem Witch Trials
1 word summary
1-Word Summary
  • Catholic Church Merit
  • Luther Justification
  • Zwingli Sovereignty
  • Anabaptists Believer’s Baptism
  • Calvin Omnipotence
  • Arminius Ability
  • “Calvinism” TULIP
  • Knox Thundering
  • Henry VIII Married
  • Pilgrims Separatists
  • Puritans Saints