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PSYC 441 Theories of Psychotherapy

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  1. PSYC 441 Theories of Psychotherapy Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Albert Ellis #7 Dean Owen, Ph.D., LPCC METU-NCC Spring 2013

  2. This presentation has been created for the sole purpose of assisting students enrolled in PSYC 441, Theories of Psychotherapyduring the Spring Semester of 2013 atMiddle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus CampusAll of the material in the presentation isdrawn from the course textbook, Theory and PracticeofCounseling and Psychotherapyby Gerald Corey

  3. Explain the REBT view of human nature. • Explain anxiety and psychological disturbance according to Ellis • Explain the meaning of the A-B-C-D-E-F theory of therapy • Recall how irrational belief is the basis for personal problems. • Recall the therapeutic techniques used in REBT PLOsPrimary Learning Objectives for today’s lesson

  4. Let’s stop for a moment to find some way to organize all of these theories…..

  5. Remember the three domains of behavior??….. Cognitive Affective Psycho-Motor


  6. Initial Targets for the Therapist There is plenty of evidence that a change in one will cause a change in the other two…..sooner or later! Cognitive Affective Psycho-motor Cognitive Affective Psycho-motor

  7. Initial Targets for the Therapist Some therapies seem to initially appeal to the emotional side of an individual….to their emotional responses…….to understanding their deepest feelings and emotional reactions……the Affective Therapies…

  8. Initial Targets for the Therapist By the early 1950s there was a movement away from psychoanalytically oriented therapies and toward a more pragmatic approach that emphasized thought, logic and reason as tools to combat emotional disturbance……The Cognitive Therapies Aaron Beck Albert Ellis

  9. Types • Cognitive therapy was based on the theory that depression is due to distortions in the patient's perspectives, such as all-or-none thinking, over-generalization, and selective perception. • The therapist initially tries to highlight these distortions, then encourages the patient to change his or her attitudes.

  10. Types 2. Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) based on the belief that most problems originate in irrational thought. For instance, perfectionists and pessimists usually suffer from issues related to irrational thinking; for example, if a perfectionist encounters a small failure, he or she might perceive it as a much bigger failure. It is better to establish a reasonable standard emotionally, so the individual can live a balanced life. This form of cognitive therapy is an opportunity for the patient to learn of his current distortions and successfully eliminate them.

  11. Types • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) the most commonly practiced type of cognitive therapy. It is based on the belief that using both cognitive therapy and behavior therapy is more effective than just one of these types. Very few therapists believe in using just one style of therapy for success any more. • Unlike Psychodynamic approaches, CBT is transparent to the client. At the end of the therapy, most clients have a clear knowledge about the treatment they have received as well as the specific techniques that are used.

  12. Cognitive Therapy (1960s) Aaron Beck Psychiatrist Professor Emeritus, University of Pennsylvania Beck Depression Inventory Beck Anxiety Inventory Beck Hopelessness Scale Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation 1921-

  13. Cognitive Therapy Aaron Beck • A “school” of therapy based on the idea of helping clients cope with difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional and disordered thinking, behavior, and emotional reactions to problems/situations. • This type of therapy attempts to help patients by: • modifying beliefs (cognitive restructuring), • identifying distorted thinking, • relating to others in different ways, and • changing behaviors. • Treatment is based on collaboration between patient and therapist and on testing beliefs.

  14. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Albert Ellis 1913-2007 The approach grew out of his disenchantment with psychoanalytically oriented therapies……oh, and he also wanted a date! Story-time

  15. Evolution of a therapy name……. Rational Therapy Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2cOLJBPQZRA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mbJgBGM6sWY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GyRE-78g_z0

  16. Ellis Biographic Sketch Born: September 27, 1913 ,Pittsburgh 1955: Ellis had given up psychoanalysis entirely, and instead was concentrating on changing people’s behavior by confronting them with their irrational beliefs and persuading them to adopt rational ones. M.A. and Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology, Columbia University, New York City 1982 professional survey of psychologists in the U.S. and Canada…Most influential psychotherapists…. 1. Carl Rogers, 2. Albert Ellis, 3. Sigmund Freud Died: July 24, 2007, New York City

  17. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Philosophy and Basic Assumptions: Individuals are born with the potential for rational thinking but tend to fall victims to the uncritical acceptance of irrational beliefs that are perpetuated through self‑re-indoctrination.

  18. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Philosophy and Basic Assumptions: • REBT is based upon the assumption is that the basis for behavior change is: • Thinking • Analyzing • Questioning • Doing • Practicing • Re-deciding

  19. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Philosophy and Basic Assumptions: REBT is a didactic‑directive model. Didactic: to convey information for the purpose of instruction

  20. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Philosophy and Basic Assumptions: Therapy is a process of re-education. To re-learn ……but what??? To re-learn how to think in a more logical fashion…..

  21. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Philosophy and Basic Assumptions: A close personal relationship between therapist and client is NOT necessary for behavior change or personal growth.

  22. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Ellis found that insight and awareness of early childhood events did not result in reduction of the client's emotional disturbances.

  23. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy The essential problem is people adopt irrational ideas early in life and then keep telling themselves these ideas over and over. prop·a·gan·da [prop-uh-gan-duh] noun 1. information, ideas, or rumors deliberately spread widely to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution, nation, etc. 2. the deliberate spreading of such information, rumors, etc. 3. the particular doctrines or principles propagated by an organization or movement.

  24. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Where do we get these irrational or illogical ideas??? Parental Messages If I’m not perfect at everything I must be worthless.

  25. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Where do we get this irrational or illogical ideas??? You may be sad for a while but you probably won’t die…… If you leave me, I’ll die…..oh baby, oh baby………

  26. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Where do we get this irrational or illogical ideas??? Contemporary Media I don’t look like this so I’m ugly!!

  27. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Where do we get this irrational or illogical ideas??? From everywhere…… Our problem is uncritically accepting as true what is told to us……especially by others whom we admire or respect.

  28. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Common irrational beliefs The following can be added to each of these…. “and if not, it’s a tragedy!”

  29. Basic Irrational Ideas 1. One must be loved and approved of all the time by all people one finds significant.

  30. Basic Irrational Ideas 1. One must be loved and approved of all the time by all people one finds significant.

  31. Basic Irrational Ideas 2. One must be thoroughly competent, adequate, and fully achieving in all areas all of the time.

  32. Basic Irrational Ideas 3. Some people are generally bad, wicked, and villainous and should be blamed and punished. Mobbing

  33. Basic Irrational Ideas 4. When things do not go as I want them to go, it's a catastrophe.

  34. Basic Irrational Ideas 5. Unhappiness comes from outside pressures and I have no ability to control my feelings.

  35. Basic Irrational Ideas 6. If something is dangerous I must become terribly preoccupied with it and upset by it.

  36. Basic Irrational Ideas 6. If something is dangerous I must become terribly preoccupied with it and upset by it.

  37. Basic Irrational Ideas 7. It is easier to avoid difficulties and responsibilities then to confront and deal with them.

  38. Basic Irrational Ideas 8. One's past totally and completely determines present and future behavior. It can but only if you allow it…. It’s really difficult to drive if you keep looking in the rear-view mirror

  39. Basic Irrational Ideas 9. There is only one right and correct solution to problems in life.

  40. Basic Irrational Ideas 10. One can achieve happiness by inertia and by doing nothing.

  41. Basic Irrational Ideas 11. One must have a high degree of order and certainty in order to feel happy or one must have some supernatural power on which to rely.

  42. Basic Irrational Ideas 12. One's self-concept or global rating depends upon the goodness of one's performances and the degree that people approve of you.

  43. Common REBT Terms Self-defeating self-talk This term refers to the negative conversations we have with ourselves in our head….constantly repeating over and over irrational ideas taken in earlier in life…..I’m so stupid….I can never get this correct…..someone doesn’t like me so there must be something wrong with me…..

  44. Common REBT Terms Catastrophizing A catastrophe is an extremely large-scale disaster, a horrible event. (Afet) This term refers to the tendency of some people to exaggerate the likely consequences of something…or to simply expect a negative outcome in the future.

  45. Common REBT Terms Counter-propagandizing The process of confronting irrational beliefs and replacing them with more rational and tolerant ideas and beliefs. What a REBT therapist does…… karşı propagandada

  46. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Key Concepts: Though emotional disturbance is rooted in childhood, the individual keeps telling himself or herself irrational and illogical sentences. The approach is based on the A‑B‑C theory of personality: A=activating event; B=belief system; C=consequence. Emotional problems are the result of one's beliefs, which need to be challenged. Our beliefs are not always logical and can certainly be changed……. The scientific method of logical and rational thought is applied to irrational beliefs.

  47. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Activating Event A Consequences C

  48. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Belief System B Activating Event A Consequences C