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  1. Psychotherapy General Psychology Final Week

  2. Chapter Outline • Psychotherapy • Psychodynamic • Humanistic • Behavioral • Cognitive • Group Therapy • Marital and Family Therapy • Drug Therapy • Efficacy of Therapy • Course evaluation

  3. Therapy • What are the different types of therapy? • Does psychotherapy really work? • Which therapies are most effective? • What type of drugs are used in the treatment of psychological disorders?

  4. Psychodynamic Therapy • Psychotherapy: Procedure in which a trained person provides talk therapy for an individual seeking help • Psychodynamic- disorders stem from hidden inner conflicts • Psychoanalysis- provide insight into hidden inner conflicts by bringing them to the surface • free association- say whatever comes to mind • resistance- refusal to report certain thoughts • transference- intense feelings of love or hate toward the analyst

  5. Goals of psychoanalysis

  6. Humanistic Therapy • Humanistic Therapy- disorders stem from factors in environment that block personal growth • Client-centered therapy- focus on eliminating unrealistic conditions of worth (distorted self-concept) • unconditional positive regard- full acceptance • empathetic understanding- “psychological mirror” • Gestalt therapy- focus on personal “wholeness” • two-chair technique- client assumes role of self and some important person in their life

  7. Behavior Therapy • Behavior Therapy- disorders stem from faulty learning (maladaptive habits) • Therapies based on Classical Conditioning • systematic desensitization- associate relaxation with feared object • Therapies based on Operant Conditioning • token economies- earn tokens for desirable behavior • Therapies based on Observational Learning • modeling- acquire new skills by observing others

  8. Cognitive Therapies • Cognitive Therapy- disorders stem from distorted patterns of thought • Rational Emotive Therapy (Ellis) - recognize and reject irrational thinking • “Everyone should like me” • “If I don’t get that promotion. my career is over” • Cognitive Behavior Therapy (Beck) - recognize and change illogical patterns of thought (e.g., overgeneralize setbacks) that underlie depression

  9. Rational Emotive Therapy • Attempts to modify the irrational beliefs that cause distress • Confrontational and directive • Common Irrational Beliefs • I must be perfect • Everyone must love me • The past determines the future • It is catastrophic when things don't go as planned • I have no control over my happiness • Perfect solutions must be found for life's problems • Happiness just happens

  10. Beck’s Cognitive Therapy • Automatic Thoughts: Thoughts people have about life and the self that may be unreasonable but are accepted as accurate • Automatic thoughts create depression and anxiety • Goal: teach patients to stop the thoughts • Also involves negative views of past, present, and future experiences • Highly effective treatment for depression & anxiety

  11. Group Therapies Note: many are closely linked to psychotherapies • Psychodynamic Group Therapy- help bring inner conflicts into consciousness • psychodrama- act out problems in front of group • Behavioral Group Therapy- change specific behaviors (social skills, assertiveness, self-control) • Humanistic Group Therapy- enhance personal growth and self-knowledge • sensitivity training groups • Self-Help Groups- support groups who share common problem (e.g., AA)

  12. Marital and Family Therapy • Marital (Couple) Therapy- designed to help couples improve relationship (communication) • role-playing, watching videos of their own interactions • Family Systems Therapy- focus is on family dynamics in which each member has a role • improve relations between family members

  13. Efficacy Studies • Efficacy Studies-Controlledresearch designed to test the effectiveness of different types of therapy • Important Criteria • inclusion of experimental (receive therapy) and control group (receive no therapy) • random assignment to therapy/no therapy conditions • rigorous controls- avoid placebo effects • trained therapists using standardized procedures • well-trained blind raters

  14. Is Psychotherapy Effective? Conclusions • over 500 reviews suggest that therapy is more effective than no therapy • the longer therapy goes, the greater improvement • more people report improvements after receiving treatment from psychiatrists/psychologists than general physicians • psychotherapies are roughly equal in effectiveness • many therapists use an eclectic approach

  15. Biomedical Therapy • Drug Therapy • Antipsychotic- reduce hallucinations/delusions • Clozapine- block dopamine receptors in the brain • Antidepressants- counter depression • Prozac- increase the action of serotonin in the brain • Antibipolar (Lithium)- counter manic-depression • Antianxiety- reduce anxiety • Valium- inhibit the CNS in the brain, activates GABA • ECT- shocks to brain used to treat severe depression - controversial • Psychosurgery- brain surgery (lobotomy)

  16. Prevention • Community Mental Health Centers provide: • Affordable mental health treatment • aftercare for outpatients • emergency services- crises intervention • prevention strategies • Primary- prevent occurrence of disorders • risks of drug use, anger management • Secondary- detect problems early before they escalate • diversion programs- steer offenders away from dangers • Tertiary- minimize long-term harm from disorders • training in custodial care