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Sentence types and discourse functions • Sentence types • Questions • Directives • Exclamatives • Echo utterances • Irregular sentences • Nonsentences
Sentence types: Formal classification • Declarative Pauline gave Tom a digital watch for his birthday. • Interrogative Did Pauline give Tom a digital watch for his birthday? • Imperative Give me a digital watch for my birthday! • Exclamative What a fine watch he received for his birthday! • Discourse functions • Statements are used to convey information. • Questions to seek information on a specific point. • Directives to instruct somebody to do something. • Exclamations for expressingthe extent to which the speaker is impressed by something
ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS • AssertionEngineers are building massive hydroelectric projects in China. • Prediction It‘s going to rain any minute now. • ApologyI‘m sorry about the delay. • Speech acts (utterences of sentences) • Locutionary act (a person performs a speech act) • Illocutionary act (refers to a speech act identified with reference to the communication intention of the hearer) • Illocutionary force (the intended effect of of an illocutionary act) My husband will be back soon. (promise, threat, warning) Why don‘t you take an aspirin? (advice, recomendation)
ILLOCUTIONARY ACTS • Occasionally, the speaker explicitly refers to the illocutionary act being performed by using a PERFORMATIVE VERB: I apologize for my remarks. Your presence at the meeting is requested. I promise you a bicycle for your birthday. Smoking in this compartment is forbidden. But generally, performative verbs are not present in speech acts. • The illocutionary force depends on the context: Would you like to come outside and sit in the sun? (invitation and suggestion)
QuestionsMajor classes (1) Those that expect affirmation or negation, as in Have you finished the book?, are YES-NOquestions; (2) Those that tipically expect a reply from an open range of replies, as in What is your name? OrHow old are you? are WH-questions; (3) Those that expect as the reply one of two or more options presented in the question, as in Would you like to go for a WÁLK or stay at HÒME?, are ALTERNATIVE questions. a question can be answered: - by another question: A : Are you going to watch television again? B : What else is there to do? - or by I don‘t know, I‘m not sure - by a refusal to answer: It‘s none of your business - by an evasion: Good question
YES-NO questions: Form • Yes-no questions are usually formed by placing the operator before the subject and giving the sentence a rising intonation: The boat has LÈFT. ~ Has the boat LÉFT? She’ll be waiting outTSÌDE. ~ Will she be waiting outTSĺDE? • If there is no item in the verb phrase that can function as operator, DO is introduced, as with negation: They live in Sydney. ~ Do they live in Sydney? Her efforts provide successful. ~ Did her efforts prove successful? He likes driving. ~ Does he like driving? • Again as with negation, main verbBE functions as operator; in BrE main verb HAVE often acts as operator, but informally HAVE … got is more common: Patrick was late. ~ Was Patrick late? She has a cold. a: ~ Does she have a cold? (esp AmE) b: ~ Has she (got) a cold? (esp BrE)
Positive yes-no questions may contain nonassertive forms such as any and ever; neutral STATEMENT QUESTION Someone called last night. Did anyone call last night? The boat has leftalready. Has the boat left yet? I live somewhere near Dover. Do you live anywhere near Dover? CONDUCTIVE (speaker is predisposed to the kind of answer he has wanted or expected. ) Did someone called last night? [“It’s true that someone called last night?”] Has the boat left already? Do you like some cake? Negative yes-no questions • always conducive; negative orientation is found in questions which contain a negative form of one kind or another: Don’t you believe me? Have they never invited you home? Aren’t you joining us this evening? Has nobody called? Hasn’t he told you what to do? • an element of surprise or disbelief;OLD EXPECTATION (positive) NEW EXPECTATION (negative); express disappointment: Aren’t you ashamed of yourself? [“You ought to be, but it appears you’re not.”] • assertive items; positive orientation: Didn‘t he recognized you too? Yes-no questions
Tag questionsRules for forming tag questions • A- consinsts of operator and subject (is he?, didn‘t she?) • - the operator is the same as the operator of preceding statement: I haven‘t seen you before, have I ? • - the subject of the tag is a pronoun • - if the statment is positive, the tag is negative, and vice versa • - the nuclear tone of the tag occurs on the auxiliary; either rising or falling. • B - statement and question are positive: Your car is outSÌDE, ĺS it? • - statementpreceded by oh or so; tag rising tone (may be sarcastic) SoTHÀT‘S your little, game, ĺS it ? Oh, you’ve had another ÀCcident, HÁVE you?
Tag questions • Tag questions with imperatives and exclamatives • - negative (won‘t); positive (will); subject ususal you Open the DÒOR, WÓN’T you? Open the DÒOR, WĺLL you? (most insistent) • - other auxiliaries and subjects: Turn on the light, will somebody or other? Save us a seat, can one of you? • - it may be added to abbreviated verbless exclamations: What a beautiful painting, isn’t it? How odd, isn’t it? • Invariant tag questions • - the same form whether the statement is positive or negative; rising tone They forgot to attend the lecture, am I right? They didn’t forget to attend the lecture, am I right?
Declarative questions • Not all yes-no questions have subject-operator inversion.The declarative question is a type of question which is identical in form to a declarative, except for the final rising question intonation. • They are conductive Nobody ever stays at your place?
Declarative questions You‘ve got the exPLÓsive? They‘ve spoken to the amBÁSsador, of course? You realize what the RĺSKS are? Boris will be THÉRE, I suppose? He didn‘t finish the RÁCE? • Positive questions have positive orientation: He wants something to eat? Somebody is with you? • Negative questions have negative orientation: You didn’t get anything to eat? You won’t nothing to eat yet?
Yes-no questions with modal auxiliaries • - yes-no question+auxiliary shifts the meaning: A : (May) I leave now? [“ Will you permit me...”] B : Yes, you may. [“ I will permit you...” ] • - the question form anticipates the form appropriate for the answer. • - shall [ volition] You shall suffer for this! [ rare; “I intend to make you suffer...!] Shall I switch off the television? [“Do you want me to ...?]
Wh-questions(information questions) Formation • with the aid of interrogative words ( wh-words): who / whom / whose, what, which, when,where, how, why • fallingintonation; • the wh-element comes first in the sentence (apart from some conjunctions) What ever are you doing? How ever did you find the key? What do you intend to do next week?
Functions of wh-element • Who ever opened my LÈTter ? [wh-element : S]  • Which books have you LÈNT him ? [wh-element : Od]  • Whose beautiful anTÌQUES are these ? [wh-element : Cs]  • How wide did they make the BÒOKcase ? [wh-element : Co]  • When will you proMÒTed ? [wh-element : A]  • Where shall I put the GLÀSSes ? [wh-element : A]  • Why are they always comPLÀINing ? [wh-element : A]  • How much does he CÀRE ? [wh-element : A]  • Who(m) did you give the present? • Who(m) did you give the present to? • To whom did you give the present?
Positive wh-questions - Presuposition: somebody in place of wh-question: Someone opened my letter. [1a] You have lent him some of the books. [2a] You will be promoted sometime.[5a] You mended it somehow. [8a] You visit New-York sometimes. [11a] - Modifying what and which have different presuppositions: What composer(s) do you like best? You like some composer(s) best. Which composer(s) do you like best? You like some (one) of the composers best. - In some cases their is no sensible presupposition: How does he feel? ~ *He feels somehow or other. Where was she born? ~ She was born somewhere. What time is it? ~ It’s some time or other.
Negative wh-questions • Who hasn‘t had any coffee ?  • Why didn‘t you tell me ? [ 2] • When shouldn‘t I call? [ 3] • Which books don‘t you want? [ 4] • Where didn‘t you clean? [ 5] - questions beginning with Why don’t you and the abbreviated Why not, are used as directives. • Why don’t you come for a meal one day next week? • Why not go by train? -Why don’t you conveys advice; has critical and irritable tone: • Why don’t you take sleeping tablets? [“Anyone else would”] • Why don’t you see a doctor? -Why don’t you, Why not may be used as an inquiry: • Why don’t you ever write?
Pushdown wh-element Wh-element can also operate indirectly in the main clause, as part of another clause element (PUSHDOWN element) (1) wh-element as prepositional complement within a noun phrase: (i) the prepositional phrase as adjunct: On what side of the road was he driving? [He was driving on one side of the road.] (ii) the prepositional phrase as modifier of a noun phrase: Of which country is Caracas the capital? [Caracas is the capital of some country.] (2) wh-element as element in nominal that-clause or to-infinitive or –ing clause: How long did he tell you (that) he waited? (3) wh-element as prepositional complement within a noun phrase: Who did the textbook say (that) Queen Elizabeth was the daughter of? <informal> [The textbook said that the Queen Elizabeth was the daughter of some person.] (4) wh-element as element in a clause that is complementation of an adjective: To what is he ready to confess? [He is ready to confess to something.]
Wh-questions - More than one wh - element I heard that Sylvia and Jane accused thier husbands of various misdeeds, but who accused whomorwhat ? Which present did you give to whome ? - if one of the wh-elements is S, it must be initial Who said to whom? • Alternative questions Would you like CHÓcolate, vaNĺLla, or STRÀWberry (ice cream) ?  Which ice cream would you like LÌKE ? CHÓcolate, vaNĺLla, or STRÀWberry ? They differ fromyes-noquestions only in intonations: alternative : A : Shall we go by BÚS or TRÀIN ? B: By BÙS. yes-no : A : Shall we go by bus or TRÁIN ? B : No, let’s take the CÀR.
MINOR TYPES OF QUESTIONS • Exclamatory questions - negative yes-no question ( with a final falling tone): Hasn‘t she GRÒWN ! Wasn‘t it a marvellous CÒNcert ! - positive yes-no question ( with a final falling tone): `Am `I HÙNGry ! `Did `he look anNÒYED ! `Has `she GRÒWN ! • Rhetorical questions - does not expect an answer; rising final tone positive: Is that a reason for desPÁIR ? Can anyone doubt the WĺSdom of this action ? negative: Isn’t the answer ÓBvious ? Haven’t you got anything better to DÓ ? - rhetorical wh-questions: Who KNÔWS / CÂRES ? [“Nobody knows/ cares”] What SHUÔLD I say? [“There is nothing that I should say”]
Directives without a subject Directives with a subject ΄You be QÙIet ! ΄ You ΄mind your own BÙSiness, and ΄leave this to MÈ ! ΄ You ΄show me what to DÒ ! ΄ You ΄take the BÒOK. Directives with let Let us all wark hard. Let me think what to do next. Let each man decide for himself. Directives (S) V: Jump. (S) VO: Open the door. (S) VC: Be resonable. (S) VA: Get inside. (S) VOO: Tell me the truth.
Forms of imperatives • without subject - 2nd person: Open the door. You open the door. • with subject a: without let - 2nd person: You open the door. - 3nd person: Someone open the door. b: with let - 1st person: Let me open the door. Let‘s open the door. - 3nd person: Let someone open the door. Negative imperatives - Don‘t let me disturb you. - Let not anyone fool himself that he can get away with it. - Let me not believe such accusation.
ORDER, COMMAND - Fire! [ fire as verb ] - Make your bed at once. PROHIBITION - Don‘t touch. REQUEST - Help! ADVICE, RECOMMENDATION - Take an aspirin for your headache. - Lock the door before you go to bed WARNING - Look out! Be careful! SUGGESTION - Let‘s have a party. INSTRUCTION - Take the first street on the left. INVITATION - Make yourself at home. - Come in and sit douwn. OFFER - Have a cigarette. GRANTING PERMISSION - Help yourself GOOD WISHES - Enjoy your meal. - Have a good time. IMPRECATION - Go to hell ! Illocutionary force of imperatives
Exclamatives • - introduced by what, how What an enormous crowd came ! [ S V] [1 ] What a time we’ve had today ! [ Od S V A] [2 ] How delightful her manners are ! [ Cs S V] [3 ] How I used to hate geography ! [ A S V Od] [4 ] • what –predeterminer in a noun phrase: ,  • how - intensifier of an adjective, adverb, clause: ,
Recapitulatory echo questions rising tone A : I didn‘t like that meal. B : You didn‘t LĺKE it? A : Switch the light off, please. B : Switch the LĺGHT off (did you say) ? A : It cost five dollars. B : HÓW much did it cost? A : We’re leaving him here. B : WHÁT are you doing with him? A : Have you borrowed my PÉN? B : (Have I ) borrowed your PÉN? A : How did you enjoy the carnaval? B : How did I enjoy WHÁT? • Echo exclamations rise-fall tone • Explicatory echo questions falling tone A : Take a look at this ! B : Take a look at WHÀT? A : Oh, dear, I‘ve lost the letter. B : WHÌCH letter have you lost? - abbreviated form: A : Look other there! B : WHÈRE? - follow an incomplete question: A : How did you enjoy the er.....? B : How did I enjoy the WHÀT? A : I’m going to London for a holiday. B : To LÔNdon ! That’s not my idea of a rest. A : What a beautiful day ! B : What a beautiful DÂY ! You must be joking. Echo utterances
Irregular sentences (a) – they contain forms not found in regular sentence structure ( Long live the Queen . ) (b) – they are marked as subordinate ( If only I had been there ! ) (c) – they are FRAGMENTARY, lacking constituents that are normally obligatory; omission of the subject I and the verb am in: Sorry to hear about your father. - or may be recoverable from the preceding context: A : When can I see you? B : Tomorrow morning. [“You can see me tomorrow morning.“] - They may occur also as independent clauses in a compound sentence: Not BÀD; that JÓKE, but I’ve heard better. - some irregular types are used as parts of sentences: Please God, there hasn’t been an accident.
Iregular wh-questions (conversation) - (i) How about, what about+ NP or –ing clauses: How about another kiss? What about following us in your car? directive How about your parents? Are they well? inquiry - (ii) How come -informal speech (esp in AmE): How come you are so late? -(iii) iregular why-question: (why (+not)+predication): Why do(n’t) you listen to him? directive -(iv) verbless why-questions; correspond to existential sentences: Why no classes today? ~ Why are there no classes today? inquiry Why all the noise? ~ Why is there all the noise? - (v) Wh-questions (except for why-questions) without S and with a to-infinitive: What to do next? What to see? Which way to go? inquiry - (vi) Dependent finite wh-interrogative clauses are used as directive headings for suggestions: How you can make your fortune. Where you should eat in Los Angeles. -(vii) Dependent infinitive wh-clauses from (v) are more used as the finite clause in (vi) as directive headings: Where to go for help How to learn a foreign language - (viii) What if and how if introduce questions (inquires, directives): What if it rains? What if you join us for lunch? What if you don’t join us for lunch just this once?
Subordinate clause as irregular sentences • That-clause contain should (surprise, dissaproval,regret): That he should have left without asking me ! That you could ever want to marry such a man ! • To-infinitive clauseis similar to that-clause; beginns with To think (that): To think that I was once a millionaire ! To think that you might have been killed ! • Infinitive clause introduced by oh express an exclamatory wish. Oh to be in England ! [ “I wish I were in England.”] Oh to be free! [ “I wish I were free.”] • Negative if-clauses, usually preceded by well or why express surprise. Well, if it isn’t the manager himself ! Why if it isn’t Susan! • Clause beginning if only; form of the verb appropriate to conditional clause. If only I’d listened to my parents ! If only he were not so timid ! • Clause beginning with supposing: Supposing I don’t see her. Supposing you come with us.
Iregular sentenses • Sentences with optative subjunctive (express a wish) Farbe it from me to spoil the fun. So be it. Suffice it to say we lost. So help me God. Long livethe Republic ![ S V inversion ] May you always be happy ! [may+S+predication] God savethe Queen ! [ S V ] • Adverbial as directives (illocutionary force of command) Forward ! On your feet ! Faster ! Left, right ! At the double ! To the left ! At ease ! Inside ! That way ! • Aphoristic sentences (proverbs) Spare the road, and spoil the child. The less said, the better. Least said, soonest mended. Love me, love my dog. Out of sight, out of mind. Like father, like son. • Subject – plus-complement constructions (verbless) What better than a shower? Not BÀD, that SÁLmon. They are thick as thieves, and no mistake.
Blocklanguage - labels, titles, newspaper headlines, headings, notices, and advertisments. Entrance 50 mph limit No entry No dogs without leash National Forecast Danger : falling rocks English Department The New York Times For Sale Pure Lemon Juice A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language - Newspaper headlines(pressure on space; simple present, transitive verbs are used intransitively): MEAT PRICES RISE AGAIN SENATOR TO SEEK REELECTION WOMAN CLAIMS DRUG CAUSED CANCER, SUES BRITISH VICTORY SURPISES - Personal letters, cables, diares (postcards-place is restricted, omission of first person, auxiliary, abreviations): Sorry about Jane. Wish you were here. Having wanderful time. Weather marvelous. Cables: NO MONEY SEND HUNDRED NEGOTIATIONS PROGRESSING RETURNING END JULY STOP LETTER Diaries: Got up at 6, phoned Bill. Bill said he was ill, so had to cancel meeting...
Iregular sentences • Abbreviated sentences in instructional writing(technical manuals, consumer leaflets on assembling or using products, instructional labels on products, recipes...; omission of articles, direct objects): Disconect cleaner from electrical outlet before replacing of this can. •Abbreviated sentences in informal conversation (initial words omitted): Don‘t know where they are. Lost something? Want another cup? Serves them right? Good to see you again. Anything wrong? • Abbreviated sentences in broadcast commentaries (omission of there is, it is, forms of the verb BE): The first lap is over. Five more to come. Sport, and we have the latest from Wimbledon. •Elliptical sentences in dialogue (avoids repetition, the speaker focuses on new material) A : Is your daughter at home? A : I‘m leaving. B : Probably. B : Why? • Elliptical sentences without change of speaker Two strange figures approached. Martians ! It has a very distinctive taste. Crips and fresh.
Nonsentences - usually NP; informal conversation; an optional vocative can be added. - Exclamatory NP modified by a restrictive relative clause. Express disapproval: The clothes she wears ! The way he complained about the food! - Exclamatory NP ( Pron.+any) You and your statistic. Pat and her childish hobbies. - Exclamatory prepositional phrase beginning withOf all express strong disapproaval: Of all the stupid things to say ! - NP may have the force of commands and requests.The avderbial please may accompany the NP: Attention ! Patience! The door ! Action station ! Lights ! A pound of butter, please ! Taxi ! Phone ! The letter, please ! Scalpel !Just a drop more ! Next slide, please ! - NP may have the force of offers or invitations; rising intonation Cigarette? My apartment? More coffee, anyone? Another round?
Formulae • GREETINGS: Good morning, Good afternoon, Good evening < all formal>; Hello, Hi • FAREWELLS: Goodbye, Good night, All the best <informal>, Cheers, See you • INTRODUCTIONS: How do you do ? How are you? Glad to meet you • REACTION SIGNALS: All right, Certainly, Absolutely, Exactly, Quite, Sure • THANKS: Thank you (very much), Many thanks, Ta <BrE slang>, Thanks a lot • SEASONAL GREETINGS: Merry Christmas, Happy New Year, Happy Anniversary • ALARM CALLS: Help! Fire! • WARNINGS: Mind, Be careful!, Watch out!, Watch it! <familiar> • APOLOGIES: (I’m) sorry, (I beg your) pardon <formal>, My mistake • RESPONSES TO APOLOGIES: That’s OK, Don’t mention it, No matter, Never mind • TOASTS: Good health, Your good health, Cheers, Here’s to you • CONGRATULATIONS: Congratulation, Well done, Right on <AmE slang> • EXPLETIVES: My Gosh, (Good) Heavens, Darn (it), Good Lord, Bugger it, Shit • EXPRESSIONS OF ANGER OR DISMISSAL: Get lost, Damn you, Go to hell, • MISCELLANEOUS EXCLAMATIONS: Shame, Encore, Over my dead body, Nothing doing, Big deal, Oh dear, Goal, Checkmate
Interjections Interjections are purely emotive words which do not enter into syntactic relations.Some of them have phonological features, which lay outside the regular system of the language. - AH (satisfaction, recognition); Aha (jubilant satisfaction, recognition); Ahem (mild call for attention); Boo (disapproval, usually for a speaker at gathering; also surprise noise); Eh? (impolite request for repetition); Hey (call for attention); Mm (casual „yes“); Oh (surprise); Oho (jubiliant surprise); Ooh (pleasure or pain); Oops (mild apology, shock or dismay); Ouch, Ow (pain); Pooh (mild disapproval or impatience); Sh (request for silence or moderation of noise);Yippee (excitement, delight); Psst[ps] (call for attention, with request of silence).
Sentence types and discourse functions • Sentence types • Questions • Directives • Exclamatives • Echo utterances • Irregular sentences • Nonsentences
Sentence types and discourse functions Bibliographical note • Quirk et al., 1995. A comprehensive grammar of the English language. Longman, London.