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Sentence Types. Basic and Particular Sentences Types in English and German. Peggy Lumm, Katharina Pischner, Patrick Puhlmann, Katrin Schaeper. Basic Sentence Types. A declaratives B interrogatives C imperatives D exclamatives . Basic Sentence Types. convey information

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sentence types

Sentence Types

Basic and Particular Sentences Types in English and German

Peggy Lumm, Katharina Pischner, Patrick Puhlmann, Katrin Schaeper

basic sentence types
Basic Sentence Types

A declaratives

B interrogatives

C imperatives

D exclamatives

declarative sentences
convey information

representative speech act

basic word order (SVO)

Declarative sentences
interrogatives
Request for information

Two Types:

Yes-No Questions (Polar Questions) / Entscheidungsfragen:

Addressee has to make a decision (Yes or No)

Wh-Questions / Ergänzungsfragen:

Addressee is asked particular, additional information

Interrogatives
interrogatives yes no questions
English:

Subject-Auxiliary Inversion (auxiliary fronted)

Have you understood this stuff?

Do they study English? („Do“ inserted)

Intonation (Basic Word Order)

You have understood this stuff?

They study English?

Interrogatives: Yes-No Questions
interrogatives yes no questions7
German:

Subject-Finite Verb Inversion (front aux or mv)

Hast du das Zeug verstanden? aux fronted

Studieren sie Englisch?  mv fronted

Intonation (Basic Word Order)

Du hast das Zeug verstanden?

Sie studieren alle Englisch?

Interrogatives: Yes-No Questions
interrogatives wh questions
English:

interrogative pronoun (Int.Pr.)= subject, genitive attr.

 basic word order

What is in the box? (subj.)

Who is your teacher? (subj.)

Whose suitcase is that? (gen. attr.)

Interrogatives: Wh-questions
interrogatives wh questions10
English:

interrogative pronoun≠subject, genitive attr.

 subj-aux inversion

Where have you been skiing?

What did you get for christmas? („did“ inserted)

Interrogatives: Wh-questions
interrogatives wh questions11
German:

interrogative pronoun=subject, genitive attr.

 basic word order (SVO; Satzklammer)

Wer bezahlt die Getränke? (subj.)

Was ist kaputt? (subj.)

Wessen Socken haben ein Loch? (gen.attr.)

Interrogatives: Wh-questions
interrogatives wh questions12
German:

interrogative pronoun≠subject, genitive attr.

 subject-finite verb inversion (front aux or mv)

Was (>DO) hast du nicht verstanden?  aux fronted

Wo (>ADV) befinden sie sich?  mv fronted

Nach wem suchst du?  mv fronted↓

Preposition has to precede interrogative pronoun in German; in English a dangling prep at the end of the question is possible: Who(m) are you looking for?

Interrogatives: Wh-questions
imperatives
Imperatives

English

  • Run!
  • Be quiet!
  • Take him for a gentleman!

Imperatives

  • do not have an explicit subject
  • generally have a verb in the base form
imperatives14
Imperatives

German

  • Setz dich!
  • Reich mir bitte das Salz!
  • Reicht mir bitte das Salz!
  • Reichen Sie mir bitte das Salz!
  • in German imperatives there is a difference between plural and singular that can be seen in the inflected verb form
  • in the polite form we have an explicit/overt subject
adhortatives
Adhortatives

English

  • Let‘s get started!
  • Let‘s you do it!

The ‚us‘ has lost ist function as a pronoun.

German

  • Lass uns loslegen!
exclamatives
Exclamatives
  • exclamatives express the speaker‘s emotional stance
  • What a nice day we‘ve spent!
  • How beautiful you look today!basically restricted to exclamative utterances introduced by what or how
  • Isn‘t she beautiful!
  • Girl, do you look sad!(take the form of polar questions)
exclamatives17
Exclamatives

German

  • Wie schön du heute aussiehst!
  • Wie groß du geworden bist!
  • Hast du dich vielleicht erschrocken!
  • Hat das aber wunderbar funktioniert!
verb first constructions
Verb-first constructions

Isshe reading this book again? Yes-no questionAUX S MAINV O

Let‘s stop it! AdhortativeAUX S MAINV O

Has the town changed! ExclamativeAUX S MAINV

Had I known this earlier, I would have helped you. Conditional ClauseAUX S MAINV O

Leave me alone! ImperativeMAINV O

Properties:

non-assertive

do not describe a factual information in the world

particular clauses
Particular clauses

Copular clauses

Verb-particle constructions

Left- and right dislocation

Cleft-sentences

Resultative constructions

copular clauses
Copular clauses

This building is a school. predicativenominal

This building is old. predicativeadjective

It is hot. nonreferentialit

There is a school. locative/existentialthere(?)

German: 1. – 4.

Das ist ein Auto.

Das sind meine Zeitschriften. uninflecteddas

verb particle constructions
Verb-particle constructions

Intransitive vs. transitive verb-particle constructions

e.g. Alistair put the book away. Bob looked down.

  • Position of particle:Alistair put the book away . OR: Alistair put away the book.BUT only: The students think ofthe exam.Put it off! *Put off it! They think of it!
  • Position of particles/prepositions in relative clauses:the school I went tothe book I put awaythe school to which I went *the book away which I put
verb particle constructions22
Verb-particle constructions
  • Order of particles:I wrote it down.I wrote Lucy‘s new telephone number down.I wrote the telephone number from Lucy‘s new London appartment, which she recently has bought quite cheaply, down.  Length

German:

Separable vs. Inseparable prefixes

Separable: Ich stelle das Geschirr hin.

Inseparable: Martin über-wacht das Geschehen.

left and right dislocation

clause boundary

clause boundary

Left- and right dislocation
  • constituent of the clause occurs outside the clause boundaries
  • advanced (left dislocation)

My heart

is broken now.

My heart,

it

is broken now.

gebrochen.

Nun ist

mein Herz

Mein Herz,

nun ist

es

gebrochen.

→ emphasize, define topic

left and right dislocation24
Left- and right dislocation
  • constituent of the clause occurs outside the clause boundaries
  • postponed (right dislocation)

What do I need

my heart

for?

clause boundary

What do I need

it

for,

my heart?

Wofür brauche ich

mein Herz

jetzt noch?

clause boundary

Wofür brauche ich

es

jetzt noch,

mein Herz?

→ give an afterthought

cleft sentence
Cleft sentence
  • complex sentence (main clause and subordinate clause) expresses a simple sentence
  • very common in English, rather seldom in German (flexibility in word order)

My heart

is broken now.

It is

my heart

that

is broken now.

Mein Herz

ist

nun gebrochen.

Es ist

mein Herz

gebrochen ist.

, das nun

→ put focus on constituent

resultative construction
Resultative construction
  • verb plus its arguments and additional phrase (AP or PP) expresses a result state of the event expressed by the verb

You break my heart

, so it falls

into pieces.

You break my heart

into pieces.

Du brichst mein Herz

, deshalb ist es

entzwei.

Du brichst mein Herz

entzwei.

as predicative
As-predicative
  • object includes hidden copular clause

You see me

. I am a

heart-broken man.

You see me

as a

heart-broken man.

Sie sehen mich

. Ich bin ein

gebrochener Mann.

Sie sehen mich

als einen

gebrochenen Mann.