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Cell Structures. By: Amber Tharpe. Invention of the microscope was important for the discovery and study of cells. Cell Theory. All living things are made of cells Cells are the smallest unit of life Cells come from other living cells. All Cells have 3 Things. DNA Cytoplasm

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cell structures

Cell Structures

By: Amber Tharpe

cell theory
Cell Theory
  • All living things are made of cells
  • Cells are the smallest unit of life
  • Cells come from other living cells
all cells have 3 things
All Cells have 3 Things
  • DNA
  • Cytoplasm
  • Cell membrane
two main types of cells
Two Main Types of Cells



Has a “true nucleus”

DNA is housed there

Has membrane-bound organelles

Single or multicellular

Plants, animals, fungi, and protists

  • No nucleus
    • DNA floats in cytoplasm
  • No membrane-bound organelles
  • All single-celled
  • Bacteria and Archaea
  • Jelly-like substance containing organelles that cushions and protects the cell
  • The fluid portion of cytoplasm minus the organelles
cell membrane
Cell membrane
  • Double-layered membrane that surrounds cells
  • Controls what goes in and out of the cell
  • Structures that perform specific jobs in the cell
  • Surrounded by membranes
  • Round organelle in the center of cell
  • Houses the DNA
  • Controls the activities of the cell
  • Surrounded by the nuclear envelope
    • Contains pores that allow certain materials in and out
  • Found inside the nucleus
  • Makes ribosomes
  • Made of protein fibers
  • Provide structure and allow for movement
types of cytoskeleton
Types of Cytoskeleton
  • Microtubules
    • Long hollow tubes
    • Shape, “tracks” for organelle movement, and make fibers for cell division
  • Intermediate filaments
    • Smaller and give cell strength
  • Microfilaments
    • Smallest allow cells to move and divide and contact as in muscle cells
endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • Network of folded membranes with spaces between
  • Extension of the nuclear envelope
  • Delivers proteins to the Golgi
  • Two types
    • Smooth- without ribosomes
      • makes lipids and detoxifies the cell
    • Rough- studded with ribosomes
      • modifies proteins
  • A combination of RNA and protein (no membrane)
  • Site of protein synthesis
  • Proteins are made here
  • Found on rough ER and free floating in cytoplasm
golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
  • Aka Golgi body or Golgi complex
  • Close network of membranes and vesicles pinch off of it
  • Processes, sorts, and delivers proteins
  • Like UPS
  • Small membrane-bound sacs that transport substances in the cell
endomembrane system
Endomembrane System
  • Connection between ER, vesicles, Golgi, then cell membrane
  • Parts of the membranes of these organelles pinch off and fuse to other parts to allow for transport in the cell
  • Make energy for the cell in the form of ATP
  • Where the process of cellular respiration occurs
  • Known as the “powerhouse” of the cell
  • Bean-shaped with folded inner membrane called cristae
  • Also have their own ribosomes and DNA inside
  • Cells like muscle cells will have more of these because they need more energy
  • Fluid-filled sac used for storing materials
  • Plant cells
    • Central vacuole for water storage
  • Contain enzymes used for digestion
  • Enzymes are activated in the Golgi
  • Break down and recycle old cell parts
  • Defends the body from bacteria and viruses
  • http://www.cleanvideosearch.com/media/action/yt/watch?videoId=ekdIEpSf-1I
  • Cylinder-shaped
  • Microtubules arranged in a circle
  • Involved in cell division
  • Only found in animal cells
cilia in some cells
Cilia- in some cells
  • Small hairlike projections
  • Allow for movement
  • Not found in all cells
  • Found in paramecium and in respiratory tract
flagella in some cells
Flagella- in some cells
  • Tail-like projections
  • Allow for movement
  • Found in sperm
cell wall
Cell Wall
  • Found in
    • Plants- made of cellulose
    • Fungi- made of chitin
    • Bacteria- made of peptidoglycan
  • Found outside the cell membrane
  • Thick and inflexible (rigid)
  • Provides protection and shape to the cell
  • Only found in plant cells
  • Where photosynthesis occurs
  • Have sacs called thylakoid membranes containing chlorophyll
  • Own ribosomes and DNA
cell membrane1

Cell Membrane

By: Amber Tharpe

cell membrane2
Cell Membrane


Plasma membrane

cell membrane3
Cell membrane

2 layers of phospholipids

Outer flexible boundary of cell

Controls what goes in and out of the cell

Selectively permeable

Allows some things to cross, while not allowing others


2 main parts


Phosphate and Glycerol

Polar (slightly charged)

Hydrophilic- loves water


2 fatty acid chains

Nonpolar (not charged)

Hydrophobic- hates water

additional parts of cell membrane
Additional Parts of Cell Membrane
  • Cholesterol- strengthens the membrane
  • Proteins- give support and extend through one or more of the phospholipid layers to help materials cross
  • Carbohydrates- serve as ID tags to enable cells to distinguish between different types of cells
transport through cell membrane
Transport through cell membrane
  • Depends on molecule’s:
    • Size
    • Polarity
    • Concentration in vs. out of the cell
  • Generally
    • Small, nonpolar molecules pass easily
    • Small polar transport through proteins
    • Large molecules are moved in vesicles

Protein that detects a signal molecule (ligand) and performs an action in response

The ligand bonding causes a change in the 3-D shape of the receptor allowing it to do its job



passive transport

Passive Transport

By: Amber Tharpe

passive transport1
Passive Transport
  • Movement of molecules across a membrane, without using energy
  • Usually small molecules
  • Types
    • Diffusion
    • Osmosis
    • Facilitated diffusion
  • Amount of dissolved particles (solutes) in a solution
  • Concentration gradient
    • Difference in concentration from 1 area to the next
  • Movement of molecules from an area of high to low concentration
  • Moves down the concentration gradient
    • From high to low concentration
  • No net reaction
  • Reaction occurs at the same rate forwards and backwards
equilibrium homeostasis
Equilibrium = homeostasis


exists when the concentration of a substance is equal through out a space

Molecules continue to move

· · · · · · · ·


· · · ·

· · · ·

  • Diffusion of water
  • Movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from a high to a lower concentration
types of solutions
Types of Solutions
  • Isotonic
    • Equal concentrations of solute in and out of the cell
    • At equilibrium
    • Water moves in and out at an equal rate
    • Cell looks normal
    • Ex: Grape in grape juice
types of solutions1
Types of Solutions
  • Hypertonic
    • More solute outside than inside the cell
    • Water leaves cell
    • Cell shrivels and dies
types of solutions2
Types of Solutions
  • Hypotonic
    • Less solutes outside the cell than inside
    • Water moves into the cell
    • Cells swell and lyse
    • Ex: distilled water (pure)
turgor pressure
Turgor Pressure
  • Pressure that water in the central vacuole exerts on the cell membrane of a plant which keeps it against the cell wall
  • Keeps a plant from wilting
facilitated diffusion
Facilitated Diffusion

When a protein embedded in the membrane transports a substance by diffusion

active transport

Active Transport

By: Amber Tharpe

active transport1
Active Transport
  • Moves molecules from low to high concentration
  • Uses energy from cell in the form of ATP
  • Goes against the concentration gradient
  • Moves large particles
active transport examples
Active Transport Examples
  • Protein pumps
  • Endocytosis
  • Exocytosis
  • uses energy to move molecules across the cell membrane (usually ions)
  • Sodium-Potassium pump
    • How neurons communicate
    • Uses energy to pump 3 Na+ out and 2 K+ in
  • Proton pump
    • Used in cellular respiration in the mitochondria
    • Uses energy to move H+ out of the cell
  • Pinched off portions of membrane containing substances
  • Used as a transport vehicle
  • Taking in substances by engulfing them in cell membrane
  • Type of endocytosis when cell membrane engulfs large particles like bacteria
  • Means “cell eating”
  • Used by white blood cells to fight infections
  • Releasing substances through fusion of a vesicle with the cell membrane
animations for transport
Animations for Transport
  • http://www.northland.cc.mn.us/biology/Biology1111/animations/transport1.html