Unit 11 Shaka — King of the Zulus 郧阳师专英语系综合英语教研室
Contents • I Background information • II Structure of the text • III Main idea of the text • IV Questions on the text • V Language points of the text
Background knowledge • I. A map of Zululand祖鲁兰(旧时为祖鲁王国Zulu Kingdom ) Zululand---the dark green colour in the map
1. The Zulu Nation – A Brief History • The Zulu are a proud tribe native to the KwaZuluNatal province of South Africa. Historically the Zulu were a mighty warrior nation and are believed to be descendants of the patriarch Zulu, the son of a Nguni chief in the Congo basin in central Africa. Apartheid textbooks taught that South Africa was virtually empty of human habitation when colonized by the Dutch in 1652. The reality is that the Zulu people began to migrate towards their present location in Natal during the 16th century.
A crucial turning point in Zulu history occurred during the reign of Shaka as king of the Zulu’s from 1816 to 1828. Prior to his rule the Zulu’s consisted of numerous clans that were related but disorganised. Shaka was a mighty and fearsome warrior and united the clans into a single powerful tribe. He introduced a new system of military organisation and revolutionised his army’s weaponry and military tactics. He introduced new battle formations that left his enemies outflanked and confused. He was a strict and brutal disciplinarian, soldiers were required to remain celibate and a violation of this rule was punishable by death. Shaka increased the power of his tribe. Conquered clans and tribes were incorporated into the Zulu nation and in eleven years he increased their number from 1500 people to 50 000 warriors alone.
From the time of Shaka onwards, the Zulu’s fought many wars to keep from being dominated by the British settlers. The final Zulu uprising before succumbing to the British was lead by Chief Bambatha in 1906. From then on the tribe that had once been master of much of the eastern coastal regions and interior of South Africa, was subjected to an increasingly harsh series of racist laws that led to poverty and disempowerment.
Zulu Beehive Houses, South Africa • Zululand is a region of South Africa along the eastern coast. The traditional architecture consists of “beehive” houses constructed of layers of thatch covering a framework of wooden strips. These houses are usually arranged in a circle. There are many variations of this type of architecture in other parts of Africa.
Zulu Beadwork • The beadwork of the Zulu of South Africa is of particularly fine quality. These examples show the use of traditional geometric designs. Beading is used for jewelry, pouches, and other accessories and is also often used in mask making.
Zulu Headmen • The people of Zululand, the Zulu, were a powerful military force in southern Africa in the early 1800s. This photograph, taken in South Africa in 1888, shows three Zulu headmen wearing traditional warrior clothing and carrying the distinctive Zulu shields.
Shaka Zulu • 2. King Shaka Zulu
Shaka • 1. Shaka (1787-1828), Zulu warrior chief, who set in motion the far-reaching changes of the mfecane, a period of warfare and forced migrations among southern African peoples. The son of the Zulu chieftain but born of a repudiated wife, Shaka spent his childhood and youth in exile, stigmatized and humiliated. In his twenties he distinguished himself for six years as a warrior in the service of Chief Dingiswayo of the Mthethwa. When Shaka's father died in 1816, Dingiswayo sent Shaka to rule the Zulu. He immediately reorganized the Zulu fighting force and, with innovations in tactics and weaponry, shaped it into a formidable military machine geared to total warfare. Within a year, Shaka had quadrupled the number of his subjects and army members by absorbing conquered groups into his Zulu nation.
By the time his overlord, Dingiswayo, was killed in 1817, Shaka was ready to take on all other groups in the area. This he did in annual campaigns during the next ten years. The result was a wave of migrations by uprooted peoples as far north as modern Tanzania and as far south as the Cape Colony (later Cape Province). At the same time, the Zulu grew by the addition of other groups, all of which were politically integrated and culturally assimilated. A decade of warfare, however, had taken a heavy toll on the Zulu. Psychologically disturbed throughout his life, and obsessively fearful of being supplanted by an heir, Shaka became clearly deranged by the death of his mother in 1828. Later that year, he was killed by his half-brother, Dingane, who succeeded him as ruler.
II Types of the text • This passage is mainly a narrative that records a turning point in the life of the character being portrayed — Shaka, King of the Zulus. The writer uses description and analysis to narrate the events and to emphasize the historical importance of the character.
The Main Ideas of the text • para1-2 : Shaka’s historical importance is established in the opening paragraph through a comparison with Napoleon • para3 : When Shaka grew in power. He met with a personal tragedy---- his mother died. • para4-5: Shaka’s orders for mourning were: • a. No crops were to be planted; • b. No milk was to be used; • c. All pregnant women and their husbands were to be killed. • para 6: What faced the Zulu nation now was total ruin and the Zulu people would starve to death. • Para 7: Gala, a minor chieftain, who wanted to end the tyranny, went to Shaka to advisehim to pull himself together. • Para8: Shak accepted Gala’s advice and rewarded Gala with many cattle.
Style of the text • 1.The writer deliberately confines the narration to two persons but centers on one only — the leading character, Shaka. Thus the story is Shaka’s story; the reader’s interest in and sympathy for him are aroused and kept. • 2.Shaka’s historical importance is established in the opening paragraph through a comparison with Napoleon; thus the reader is impressed from the very beginning. • 3.The last two sentences in Paragraph 1 arouse a strong desire on the part of the reader to read on. He is eager to know how the story will deal with the building of a nation and its rescue from destruction by an act of great courage.
Style of the text • 4. To introduce the chief character to the reader, the writer goes very swiftly through the methods Shaka employed to build up his army and his power, citing vivid examples of his ironhanded leadership. • 5. After having set the scene, the writer moves on to the key incidents by supplying the reader with ample, significant, and concrete details, by means of which the writer portrays Shaka as a severe and relentless ruler and describes the scale of his exaggerated grief and its devastating effects on the prosperity of his kingdom. (Para. 4, 5, 6) • 6. The dramatic events at the end of the passage are made even more vivid and memorable by the use of direct speech. The reader can almost hear the words said by the king and by Gala. In this way the reader’s feeling is heightened.
Style of the text • 7. The writer powerfully builds up tension by delaying Shaka’s reply to Gala’s brave speech of protest; thus the likely effect of Gala’s words on Shaka is described in the attitudes and actions of the onlookers: “Gala’s life seemed to be measured in seconds”. This delay makes the ending gain in unexpectedness and power. • 8. Finally the writer gives us a strong ending which is meant to remain in the reader’s memory. The last sentence is vivid and concrete, and the reader will read it with a sigh of relief.
Questions • How much do you know about Shaka? • What’s your opinion toward Shaka----- king of the Zulus after you have read the text?
Detailed Study of the TextA. Grammar • 1. Examples of sentences in inverted order in the passage: • 1) Had Shaka been born in Europe, he too might well have altered the course of world affairs. (Para. 1) • And he would have destroyed it had it not been for the courage of a minor chieftain Gala. (Para.1) • The above are conditional sentences. The if- clause that contains were, or had, or should can be replaced by a clause that had its subject and verb inverted without using if. • More examples: • Were your sister here, I would ask her to explain the whole matter. • I would go to help them out, should it be necessary. • We would have had a terrible drought, had it not been for the timely rain.
Detailed Study of the TextA. Grammar • 2) Only after this had been done did he announce his orders for mourning… (Para. 4) • When only is in the front position and when it is not qualifying the subject, the sentence is in inverted order. • More examples: • Only in the northeast of our country have I seen such high mountains as these. • Only with the full support of each and every member of the committee can we hope to succeed in our plan. • Only When a customer has browsed to his heart’s content does he need the assistant’s services. • Note that such inverted sentences are almost never used in spoken English.
Detailed Study of the TextA. Grammar • 2. The use of full negation and double negation: • 1) Neither man had ever heard of the other, yet they had a… • Neither is used to express full negation. • More examples: • --Which of the two plays did you enjoy seeing? • --Neither (of them). They were both dull. • Two posts were vacant in that supermarket but he didn’t apply for either of them because ha was interested in neither.
Detailed Study of the TextA. Grammar • 2) …he was absolutely ruthless, never moving without an escort of “slayers”, … • This is an example of double negation. • More examples: • They never let a day pass without learning something new. • He never reads a book without writing a book report. • Tony never left the bookshop without having browsed among the books to his heart’s content. • The tourists who come to China to see sights will never feel satisfied without visiting the Great Wall.
Detailed Study of the TextB.Vocabulary • 1. chieftain: the leader of a tribe. • 2. minor: less important or less serious • 3. alter: v. To become different; change partly. • e.g.This shirt must be altered; it is too large for Michael. • You have altered a lot since I saw you last time. • 4. ruthless: adj. showing no human feeling • e.g. a ruthless killer • 5.escort: verb. To go with • e.g. The queen was escorted by the directors as she toured the factory. • 6. slayer: murderer • 7.suicidal: adj. wishing to kill oneself ; leading to death or destruction.
8.formidable: adj. • 1)difficult to defeat • e.g. They faced formidable difficulties in their attempt to go through the forest. • 2)causing fear, doubt, anxiety. • e.g. a formidable voice • 9.regiment: n. a large military group commanded by a colonel • 10.tyranny: n. cruel or unjust use of power to rule a country. • 11. come to an end: finish • e.g. The meeting came to an end at last. • Napoleon’s military career came to an end at Waterloo in 1815. • 12. hear of sb. / sth.: have knowledge of • e.g. I have never heard of the city. • She hasn’t heard of her husband’s death.
13. have … in common (with): share (with) e.g. They have nothing in common with one another. Tom and I had background in common. Susan and her mother have much in common. 14. well:adv. (mid position) with good reason, justice or likelihood; advisably e.g. You may well be surprised. I couldn’t very well refuse to help them. You may quite well give illness as an excuse. 115. As it was, he built the Zulu nation.: What really happened was that he built the Zulu nation. The clause as it was is used to indicate that an event really took place. as it is (or was): actually; in fact e.g. I thought things would get better, but as it is, they are getting worse. We expected him to be successful, and as it was, he really made a hit.
16. turn sth. into sth.: (cause to) change in nature, quality, condition, etc. e.g. Frost turns water into ice. Could you turn this piece of prose into verse / this passage into Creek? • 17. (slayers,) whose job it was to kill anyone who displeased him in any way: whose job was to kill anyone who displeased him in any way • In meaning, the two relative clauses are identical; but in construction, the first clause has the introductory it as the formal subject. • 18. … if they showed anything less than suicidal courage in battle, …: … if they did not show courage which could result in their deaths in battle, … 19. build up: make, acquire, steadily and gradually e.g. He has built up a good business. He has built up a good reputation for his goods. He went on holiday and soon built up his health.
20. personal tragedy struck: personal tragedy took place and affected (Shaka) severely / personal tragedy dealt a heavy blow to (Shaka) • strike: have a sudden harmful effect on a person or an area • e.g. personal tragedy / an earthquake / lightning / an illness struck • 21. something seemed to snap in his mind: something in his mind seemed to give way suddenly under pressure, in other words, Shaka was under such a great strain that he lost control of himself • 22. fail:v. omit; neglect (or, in many cases, simply making, with the infinitive, a negative of an affirmative) • e.g. He never fails to write to his mother every week. His promises failed to materialize. • He did not fail to keep his words.
23. consist of: (not in the progressive tenses) be made up of e.g. The committee consists of ten members. Chaucer’s Canterbury Talesconsists of 24 stories. The school consisted of one class of twenty-four boys, ranging in age from seven to thirteen. (Unit 1) 24. this order was little less than a sentence of national starvation: almost an order (given by the judge) that the whole nation be starved to death几乎是一项饿死全国国民的判决 • be little less than: amount to the same as; be equal to • e.g. Helping oneself to a dictionary without the owner’s permission is little lessthan theft. • You are little less than a villain if you encourage a ten-year-old boy to smoke and play cards.
sentence: the punishment that a person receives after being found guilty of a crime in a law court • e.g. a sentence of ten-year imprisonment 十年徒刑 • a sentence of life imprisonment or life sentence无期徒刑 • death sentence死刑 • 25. determine to do sth; determine on/upon sth.: decide firmly, resolve, make up one’s mind • e.g. He determined to learn Greek. • He has determinedto prove his friend’s innocence. • His future has not yet been determined, but he may study medicine. • 26. the Great Elephant: a title for the king
27. to challenge the King’s wishes: to question the rightness of the King’s wishes • Challenge in different contexts has different meanings. • e.g. No one challenged the Theory of Relativity. 没有人对相对论提出异议。 • Nora challenged Dick to a game of chess. Nora向Dick挑战，要跟他下一盘棋。 • The sentry challenged the man in blue. 哨兵向穿蓝衣的男子发出查问口令。
28. … and Gala’s life seemed to be measured in seconds: … and Gala would probably die instantly / and Gala’s life hung by a thread • In is used to show quantity or number. • e.g. Tourists from various parts of the country come to visit the Great Wall in large numbers. • The area of a city is measured in square kilometers. • 29. as for: with reference to (sometimes suggesting indifference or contempt) • e.g. As for you, I never want to see you here again. • As for my past, I’m not telling you anything.