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PIA 2528 Civil Society: A Conceptual Framework

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PIA 2528 Civil Society: A Conceptual Framework. Review- Five Themes. Democracy Governance Local Government Civil Society Institutional State. Quote of the Week. George Orwell, Burmese Days

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PIA 2528

Civil Society:

A Conceptual Framework

review five themes
Review- Five Themes
  • Democracy
  • Governance
  • Local Government
  • Civil Society
  • Institutional State
quote of the week
Quote of the Week
  • George Orwell, Burmese Days
    • "Why is it you are always abusing the pukka sahibs as you call them. They are the salt of the earth. Consider the great administrators who have made British India what it is.”
discussion of themes
Discussion of Themes
  • Orwell, Burmese Days
    • Lindsay Wood
    • Laura Meixell
madison hamilton and jay and civil society
Madison, Hamilton and Jay and Civil Society
  • Federalist Papers
    • Fear of Populism
    • Minority rights
    • Shifting majorities
    • The problem with majorities
    • Tyranny
    • Factions
polyarchy the conceptual framework
Polyarchy: The Conceptual Framework
  • Competitive Pluralism
  • Diverse interest associations of society compete with each other over policy issues
polyarchy six principles
Polyarchy: Six Principles
  • Interest Group Liberalism
  • Problem of zero-sum game
  • Civil Society as organizational not individual or the mass.
  • The need for apathy
  • Institutional structures: Checks and balances
  • Constitutional vs. social stability
civil society the base point
Civil Society: The Base Point
  • Civil Society- Networks of organizations, groups and individuals pursuing socio-economic interests
themes civil society
Themes- Civil Society
  • Wenfu- “Peddler’s Family”
      • Chunwrong Chen
      • Ali Ashraf
      • Lindsay Wood
  • Isabel Allenda- “Clarissa”
      • Anh Ninh
      • Stephenie Schell
review civil society the nature of the beast
Review: Civil SocietyThe Nature of the Beast:
  • Non-Profits
  • Not for Profits
  • Private Voluntary Organizations
  • Community Based Organizations
  • Civics
nature of the beast continued
Nature of the Beast-Continued
  • Foundations
  • Associations
  • Interest Groups
  • Quangos
nature of the beast
Nature of the Beast
  • The University of Pittsburgh is a Non-Profit
  • They are not always small
five caveats civil society groups
Five Caveats: Civil Society Groups
  • Usually excludes “for profits”- issue of contractors
  • Both International and Local
  • Internationals are not universally loved
  • Very often internationals are religious or charity based
  • Focus has been primarily on relief rather than development or civil society goals
theme institutional development and history of state civil society
Theme: Institutional Development and History of State Civil Society
  • Allen, “Plain Tales,” and “Dark Continent”
      • Sara Tilka
      • Stephenie Schell
      • Ali Ashraf
types of development ngos
Types of “Development” NGOs

1. Philanthropy

2. Humanitarian Assistance

War, Drought, Agricultural Failure (WWI)

Relief and Welfare Societies- Disaster-

3. Populist based development agencies (national)

types of development ngos16
Types of “Development” NGOs

4. Grassroots associations (local or village based): Focus on Rural Development

5. Advocacy groups: Democracy and Governance

6. Public Service Contractors and Grantees

international ngos weaknesses
International NGOs- Weaknesses

1. Lack of local legitimacy

2. Donor driven

3. Inefficiency

4. Amateurism- leadership and continuity problems

5. Staffing problems

international ngos weaknesses18
International NGOs- Weaknesses

6. Self-serving- own objectives: Faith Based

7. Fixation on projects- Problems of replication

8. Lack of perceived accountability

9. Learning problems/lack of institutional memory

international ngos weaknesses19
International NGOs- Weaknesses

10. Tensions with government institutions- Politically threatening

11. Ties with existing local elites

12. Inability of humanitarian organizations to transfer to new development orientation

  • Ten Minutes
public private partnerships
Public Private Partnerships

The Twenty-First Century Paradigm

types of democracy
Types of Democracy,
  • Cooperative Movements (or Corporatism)
    • Diverse interest associations cooperate with each other and with organs of the state to make policy
public private partnerships23
Public-Private Partnerships
  • U.S. Parallel: Western Pennsylvania
understanding the public sector of allegheny county
Understanding the Public Sector of Allegheny County

Allegheny County is made up of 130 townships and boroughs. Each of these has its own public manager and council. The city of Pittsburgh is part of this mix of local government. Several Thousand non-profits

Operating Budget for the County for 2003 is $654 million. This budget provides for such services as:

Children and Youth Services

Jail/County Police

Port Authority

District attorney


demographics of allegheny county
Demographics of Allegheny County
  • Total population 1,281,666
    • 84% White
    • 12% African American
    • 1.7% Asian
    • 1% Hispanic
    • 1/10 of 1% Native American
    • 18% 65+
    • 6% under 5 years old
public private partnerships26
Public-Private Partnerships
  • Non-Profits Number in W. PA in tens of thousands and
  • deliver up to two-thirds of the social services of the County in several different sectors
public private p artnerships the international context
Public Private Partnerships:The International Context

Defined: Partnerships (formal or informal) between:

  • Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs),
  • Community Based Organizations (CBOs),
  • Governments,
  • Donors (International and Private),
  • Private- Business Sector.
public private partnerships28
Public Private Partnerships
  • Origins- Use in International Development

a. International Donors- Way of Dealing with Umbrella Grants and implementation of development policies

b. Accepting donor money means accepting donor principles

public private partnerships29
Public Private Partnerships

c. Comes out of Structural Adjustment and Policy Reform (re. LDCs)

d. Seen by some as an alternative to Contracting Out- Others as part of it

e. Critics see it as detrimental to a market approach to economic change

public private partnerships characteristics
Public Private Partnerships: Characteristics

a. Targeted at the expansion of Social Capital and Synergy in the promotion of Economic and Social Development

  b. Seeks a holistic or Integrated Approach to Economic and Social Development

  c. Involves informal processes, cultural sensitivities as well as legal norms and contracting principles.

public private partnerships ppps
Public Private Partnerships (PPPs)

Supporting Factors in the International Context:

  1. Democratic Governance- private sector and NGOs seen as legitimate actors; transparency, accountability and responsiveness

2. Rational Government- Merit Principles, anti-corruption environment, acceptance of non-state actors as service deliverers. Contracting Out

public private partnerships factors
Public Private Partnerships- Factors

Factors that Support PPPs 

3. Decentralization- Subsidiarity: Governance devolved to the lowest levels capable of implementation and contracting out

4. Legal Frameworks- Acceptance of Contractual Agreement as the basic organizational relationship

public private partnerships factors33
Public Private Partnerships-Factors

5. Institutional Norms, Organizational Capacity and regularized principles of inter-organizational interaction. Requires high levels of capacity building

6. Requires Social and Economic Stability

7. Organizational flexibility across all sectors

public private partnerships factors34
Public Private Partnerships- Factors

8. Social and Institutional Pluralism- win-win rather than zero sum game across social, ethnic, religious and racial groups

9. Social Networks exist at Grass roots, and intermediate as well as higher levels of government-See diagram

the model
The Model:
  • Local Governance and Civil Society
  • Decentralization Diagram


Jennifer M. Brinkerhoff,

Partnership for International Development: Rhetoric or ResultsBoulder, Co.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002

institutional legacy discussion huntington culture matters
Institutional Legacy- Discussion: Huntington, Culture Matters
  • Verona Benjamin (Lead)
  • Ali Ashraf
  • Stephenie Schell
  • Lindsay Wood
  • Anh Ninh
  • Sarah Tylka
  • Chunrong Chen
  • Laura Meixell (Questions to Panel)
case studies the institutional legacy
Case Studies: The Institutional Legacy
  • Africa: “Dark Continent and Europe:” Lord Hailey, Oliver, Picard?
  • Eastern Europe: “Balkan Ghosts:” Kaplan, Glenny
  • Asia- China, Japan and America: Karnow, Kaplan, Storry
  • Latin America: Iberian Heritage (or US): Greene, De Soto
  • Middle East: Ottoman Legacy vs. European Influence: Lerner, Naipaul, Segev
  • Questions, Comments?
discussion next week
Discussion: Next Week
  • Governance Themes:
      • Asia: Huntington, Clash of Civilizations
      • Middle East, Nutting
      • Africa: Picard, Botswana
      • Latin America, Garrity and Picard, Dependency Avoidance