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Islamic Fundamentalism. Beliefs and Practices; Social Movements and Groups. Islamic Fundamentalism. Three Types of Modern Islamic Theory: The Madhhabists : Adherents to specific schools of law The Salafi : Qur’anic literalists The Ghulat : Extremists (or cultists) Types of Movements:

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Islamic Fundamentalism

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islamic fundamentalism

Islamic Fundamentalism

Beliefs and Practices; Social Movements and Groups

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Islamic Fundamentalism
  • Three Types of Modern Islamic Theory:
    • TheMadhhabists: Adherents to specific schools of law
    • The Salafi: Qur’anic literalists
    • The Ghulat: Extremists (or cultists)
  • Types of Movements:
    • Islamists
      • History:
        • Post Ottoman Period
          • Jamal ad-din al-Afghani (1837-97): Called for a return to the original principles and ideals of Islam and for greater unity among Islamic peoples
          • Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905): Islami apologist who taught that morality and law must be adapted to modern conditions in the interest of the common good.
          • Rashid Rida (1865-1935): Highlighted the relative weakness of Muslim societies vis-à-vis Western colonialism
        • The Deobandi Movement
          • Dar al Alum University in Deoband, India
          • Adhered to Hanafi School of jurisprudence
          • Social conservatism
Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi
      • Advocated the creation of an Islamic state governed by sharia law, as interpreted by Shura councils.
      • An integration of Islam with an ethical scientific view.
    • The Muslim Brotherhood
      • Founded by Hassan al Banna in 1928
      • The Qur’an as “Constitution”
      • Provided basic community services including schools, mosques, and workshops
      • The need to eliminate all non-Muslim imperialism from the world
    • Sayyid Qutb
    • The Iranian Revolution
    • Lebanon and Hezbollah
  • Tenets and Beliefs:
    • Belief in revolution to affect social change
    • Education of women
    • The use of modern technology within the Islamic state
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Islamic Fundamentalism
  • Fundamentalists
    • The world is divided into two spheres, Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb…Jihad is waged to “remove the obstacles to the religion of God”
    • Jihad is a religious war with those who are “unbelievers in the mission of the Prophet Muhammad the Prophet.”
    • A literal approach to the interpretation of the Qur’an
    • No separation between religious and secular authority…the state should implement Shariah law
    • Innovation is to be avoided
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Islamic Fundamentalism
  • Some problems:
    • What is Sharia law?
    • Regional variation
    • What is Islam?
      • Sunni
      • Shi’ite