EEE-3008/8005 Industrial automation, Robotics (& Artificial Intelligence) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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EEE-3008/8005 Industrial automation, Robotics (& Artificial Intelligence)

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  1. EEE-3008/8005Industrial automation, Robotics (& Artificial Intelligence) Module leader: Dr. Damian Giaouris Email: Damian.Giaouris@ncl.ac.uk Room: E3.16 – Phone: 0191 222 7327 http://www.ncl.ac.uk/timetable/

  2. Lecture Outcomes: • Syllabus outline • Book list • History of robots – Main Robot types

  3. EEE-3008/8005 Robots QRIO (Sony)

  4. Provisional syllabus Main task: Define a model Robot anatomy Object location On – Off control PLC’s • Expert Systems (ES) • Fuzzy Logic (FL) • Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) • Genetic Algorithms (GAs) • A combination of all these Kinematics (Position) Kinematics (Velocity) Industrial Control Artificial Intelligence

  5. Book List • Craig, J. “Introduction to robotics”, Addison Wesley Selfmark: 629.892 CRA • Ranky, PG and Ho, CY, “Robot Modeling”IFS Publications Ltd • Selfmark: 629.892 RAN • McKernow, P.J., “Introduction toRobotics”, Addison Wesley • Selfmark: 629.892 MAC • Slotine, J. J, “Robot analysis and Control”, John Willey and Sons • Selfmark: 629.892 ASA • Paul, R. P., “Robot Manipulators, Mathematics, Programming and Control”, MIT Press, Selfmark: 3.65/9

  6. Definitions Etymology: Robot is a Slavic word for worker/slave Robotic Institute of America: “A programmable multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, or specialised devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks.”

  7. Mechanical puppets Limited utility Expensive CPU Micro processor Artificial Intelligence History of Robots • Gen. 0: 18th century • Gen. 1: 1960s • Cheap • High level languages • PID control • Networking • Gen. 2: 1980s • Human behaviour • Nanotechnology • AGVs • Gen. 3: 1990s

  8. Military applications Planet exploration through AGVs Space robots Current research – M.I.T.

  9. Robot Components • Vehicles • Manipulator arms • Wrists • End effectors • Actuators • Transmission elements • Sensors

  10. Robot and human anatomy Human body Robot Links (Parts) Joints Links (Parts) Joints Low part Torso Upper arm Forearm Robot base Link that mimics torso Link that mimics upper arm Link that mimics forearm Waist Shoulder Elbow Waist Shoulder Elbow Name sequence

  11. Joints Links Manipulator/ Robotic arm Manipulator Connect different parts Mechanical solid objects that connect two joints

  12. Revolute joint Prismatic joint Joints • Gives name to robot • Two Prismatic joints=PP • Two Revolute joints=RR • Prismatic and Revolute joints=PR • Revolute and Prismatic joints=RP

  13. Revolute robot Articulated or RRR arm

  14. Prismatic robot - PPP

  15. Cylindrical robot - PRP

  16. Spherical robot - RRP

  17. Advantages & Disadvantages • Linear motion in 3D • Simple kinematics model • Rigid structure • Easy to visualise • Can use inexpensive pneumatic drives for pick • and place operations • Requires large volume to operate in • Workspace is smaller than robot volume • Unable to reach areas under objects • Guiding surfaces of prismatic joints must be covered • to prevent ingress of dust PPP

  18. Advantages & Disadvantages • Simple kinematics model • Easy to visualise • Good access into cavities and machine openings • Very powerful when hydraulic drives are used • Restricted workspace • Guiding surfaces of prismatic joints must be covered • to prevent ingress of dust • Back of robot can overlap work volume PRP

  19. Advantages & Disadvantages • Covers a large area from a central support • Can bend down to pick objects off the floor • Complex kinematic model • Difficult to visualise RRP

  20. Advantages & Disadvantages • Maximum flexibility • Covers large area of work relative to volume of robot • Revolute joints are easy to seal • Suits electrical motors • Can reach over and under objects. • Complex kinematic model • Difficult to visualise • Control of linear motions is difficult • Structure not very rigid at full rigid RRR

  21. Wrists • A fourth joint to connect the hand with the forearm • 3 degrees of freedom (3 Rotations) • Roll (Rotation around z-axis) • Pitch (Rotation around y-axis) • Yaw (Rotation around x-axis)

  22. Wrists L1

  23. EEE-3008Lecture Outcomes: • Frames • Degrees of freedom

  24. Coordinate Frames & Objects • Reference Frames • Motor Frame • Joint Frame • Tool Frame • World Frame Joint Frame Joint variables Angles and translations World Frame Cartesian variables X, Y, Z

  25. Cartesian Plane and Space

  26. Positive Angle, Cartesian Plane and Space

  27. Vector in Cartesian Plane/Space Origin: 0(0,0) Origin: 0(0,0,0)

  28. Point Translation in Cartesian Space

  29. Object Translation in Cartesian Space

  30. Notation A point in a 3D space is defined by three coordinates If there are more than one frames then we need to be more specific

  31. Translation & Rotation in Cartesian Space

  32. Translation & Rotation in Cartesian Space

  33. Translation & Rotation in Cartesian Space

  34. Transformation matrix • Need for attaching reference frames on objects • We have seen that an object has six degrees of freedom (DOF) • 3 translations • 3 orientations • The overall analysis with vectors can be very difficult. • For this reason we will use matrices.

  35. Transformation matrix – 2D

  36. Transformation matrix – 2D Even Symmetry – Or rotation along the y-axis for 180o

  37. Transformation matrix – 2D Odd Symmetry – Or rotation along the origin

  38. Transformation matrix – 3D We have seen that a 2x2 matrix can represent any translation and rotation in a 2D plane This concept can be applied in a 3-D space: Our goal is to find the appropriate values of k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t to describe a specific translation/rotation

  39. Transformation matrix – y translation

  40. Transformation matrix – y translation Hence the element (2,2) controls the y - translation

  41. Transformation matrix Hence the element (2,2) controls the y – translation The element (1,1) the x-axis The element (3,3) the z-axis

  42. Transformation matrix – 3D

  43. Example

  44. Intuitive approach to frame rotation

  45. Intuitive approach to frame rotation

  46. Intuitive approach to frame rotation

  47. Rotation Matrices

  48. Proper derivation

  49. Proper derivation

  50. Proper derivation