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EEE-3008/8005 Industrial automation, Robotics (& Artificial Intelligence) Module leader: Dr. Damian Giaouris Email: Damian.Giaouris@ncl.ac.uk Room: E3.16 – Phone: 0191 222 7327 http://www.ncl.ac.uk/timetable/ Lecture Outcomes: Syllabus outline Book list

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eee 3008 8005 industrial automation robotics artificial intelligence
EEE-3008/8005Industrial automation, Robotics (& Artificial Intelligence)

Module leader: Dr. Damian Giaouris

Email: Damian.Giaouris@ncl.ac.uk

Room: E3.16 – Phone: 0191 222 7327

http://www.ncl.ac.uk/timetable/

lecture outcomes
Lecture Outcomes:
  • Syllabus outline
  • Book list
  • History of robots – Main Robot types
provisional syllabus
Provisional syllabus

Main task: Define a model

Robot anatomy

Object location

On – Off control

PLC’s

  • Expert Systems (ES)
  • Fuzzy Logic (FL)
  • Artificial Neural Networks (ANN)
  • Genetic Algorithms (GAs)
  • A combination of all these

Kinematics

(Position)

Kinematics

(Velocity)

Industrial

Control

Artificial

Intelligence

book list
Book List
  • Craig, J. “Introduction to robotics”, Addison Wesley Selfmark: 629.892 CRA
  • Ranky, PG and Ho, CY, “Robot Modeling”IFS Publications Ltd
  • Selfmark: 629.892 RAN
  • McKernow, P.J., “Introduction toRobotics”, Addison Wesley
  • Selfmark: 629.892 MAC
  • Slotine, J. J, “Robot analysis and Control”, John Willey and Sons
  • Selfmark: 629.892 ASA
  • Paul, R. P., “Robot Manipulators, Mathematics, Programming and Control”, MIT Press, Selfmark: 3.65/9
definitions
Definitions

Etymology: Robot is a Slavic word for worker/slave

Robotic Institute of America:

“A programmable multifunctional manipulator

designed to move material, parts, or specialised devices

through variable programmed motions for the performance

of a variety of tasks.”

history of robots

Mechanical puppets

Limited utility

Expensive

CPU

Micro

processor

Artificial

Intelligence

History of Robots
  • Gen. 0: 18th century
  • Gen. 1: 1960s
  • Cheap
  • High level languages
  • PID control
  • Networking
  • Gen. 2: 1980s
  • Human behaviour
  • Nanotechnology
  • AGVs
  • Gen. 3: 1990s
current research m i t

Military applications

Planet exploration through AGVs

Space robots

Current research – M.I.T.
robot components
Robot Components
  • Vehicles
  • Manipulator arms
  • Wrists
  • End effectors
  • Actuators
  • Transmission elements
  • Sensors
robot and human anatomy
Robot and human anatomy

Human body

Robot

Links (Parts)

Joints

Links (Parts)

Joints

Low part

Torso

Upper arm

Forearm

Robot base

Link that

mimics torso

Link that

mimics

upper arm

Link that

mimics forearm

Waist

Shoulder

Elbow

Waist

Shoulder

Elbow

Name

sequence

manipulator robotic arm

Joints

Links

Manipulator/ Robotic arm

Manipulator

Connect different parts

Mechanical solid

objects that connect

two joints

joints

Revolute joint

Prismatic joint

Joints
  • Gives name to robot
    • Two Prismatic joints=PP
    • Two Revolute joints=RR
    • Prismatic and Revolute joints=PR
    • Revolute and Prismatic joints=RP
revolute robot
Revolute robot

Articulated or

RRR arm

advantages disadvantages
Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Linear motion in 3D
  • Simple kinematics model
  • Rigid structure
  • Easy to visualise
  • Can use inexpensive pneumatic drives for pick
  • and place operations
  • Requires large volume to operate in
  • Workspace is smaller than robot volume
  • Unable to reach areas under objects
  • Guiding surfaces of prismatic joints must be covered
  • to prevent ingress of dust

PPP

advantages disadvantages18
Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Simple kinematics model
  • Easy to visualise
  • Good access into cavities and machine openings
  • Very powerful when hydraulic drives are used
  • Restricted workspace
  • Guiding surfaces of prismatic joints must be covered
  • to prevent ingress of dust
  • Back of robot can overlap work volume

PRP

advantages disadvantages19
Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Covers a large area from a central support
  • Can bend down to pick objects off the floor
  • Complex kinematic model
  • Difficult to visualise

RRP

advantages disadvantages20
Advantages & Disadvantages
  • Maximum flexibility
  • Covers large area of work relative to volume of robot
  • Revolute joints are easy to seal
  • Suits electrical motors
  • Can reach over and under objects.
  • Complex kinematic model
  • Difficult to visualise
  • Control of linear motions is difficult
  • Structure not very rigid at full rigid

RRR

wrists
Wrists
  • A fourth joint to connect the hand with the forearm
  • 3 degrees of freedom (3 Rotations)
  • Roll (Rotation around z-axis)
  • Pitch (Rotation around y-axis)
  • Yaw (Rotation around x-axis)
eee 3008 lecture outcomes
EEE-3008Lecture Outcomes:
  • Frames
  • Degrees of freedom
slide24

Coordinate Frames & Objects

  • Reference Frames
  • Motor Frame
  • Joint Frame
  • Tool Frame
  • World Frame

Joint Frame

Joint variables

Angles and translations

World Frame

Cartesian variables

X, Y, Z

vector in cartesian plane space
Vector in Cartesian Plane/Space

Origin: 0(0,0)

Origin: 0(0,0,0)

notation
Notation

A point in a 3D space is defined by three coordinates

If there are more than one frames then

we need to be more specific

transformation matrix
Transformation matrix
  • Need for attaching reference frames on objects
  • We have seen that an object has six degrees of freedom (DOF)
  • 3 translations
  • 3 orientations
  • The overall analysis with vectors can be very difficult.
  • For this reason we will use matrices.
transformation matrix 2d36
Transformation matrix – 2D

Even Symmetry – Or rotation along the y-axis for 180o

transformation matrix 2d37
Transformation matrix – 2D

Odd Symmetry – Or rotation along the origin

transformation matrix 3d
Transformation matrix – 3D

We have seen that a 2x2 matrix can represent

any translation and rotation in a 2D plane

This concept can be applied in a 3-D space:

Our goal is to find the appropriate values

of k,l,m,n,o,p,q,r,s,t to describe

a specific translation/rotation

transformation matrix y translation40
Transformation matrix – y translation

Hence the element (2,2)

controls the y - translation

transformation matrix41
Transformation matrix

Hence the element (2,2)

controls the y – translation

The element (1,1) the x-axis

The element (3,3) the z-axis

forward transformation
Forward Transformation

We know original and new frame (RTN).

We also know

nP and we want to find RP after the transformation

translation example
Translation Example

Assume

  • Calculate:
  • Transformation matrix
  • The new location of the vector p (i.e. p’)
industrial automation
Industrial automation

Translation Example

industrial automation56
Industrial automation

Final step is to combine all the translations and/or rotations

Coordinate Frames

To do this we have to (pre)multiply all the transformation

matrices and then to calculate the overall transformation matrix

The transformation matrix from the original (R) reference frame to the new (N) one.

industrial automation57
Industrial automation

All the transformations are with respect to the original frame

Coordinate Frames

Translation along the y-axis

industrial automation58
Industrial automation

All the transformations are with respect to the original frame

Coordinate Frames

Pre-multiplication

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Industrial automation

Example

Initially assume that two origins concise

industrial automation65
Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

R(0,0,b) before trans

industrial automation66
Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

Direction

of X axis

Direction

of Z axis

Direction

of Y axis

Translation

industrial automation67
Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

industrial automation68
Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

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Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

industrial automation70
Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

Trans(-4,-4,-2)

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Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

Trans(-4,-4,-2)

Rot(x,180)

industrial automation72
Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

Rot(x,180)

transl(0,0,6)

industrial automation73
Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

Rot(x,180)

transl(0,0,6)

transl(-4,10,0)

industrial automation74
Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

Rot(x,180)

transl(0,0,-4)

transl(0,0,8)

transl(-4,10,0)

industrial automation75
Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

transl(-4,-4,-2)

rot(x,180)

transl(0,0,8)

transl(-4,10,0)

transl(0,0,-4)

industrial automation76
Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

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Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

Transl(-8,-4,-4)

Rot(y,-pi/2)

Transl(0,0,40)

Transl(-10,20,0)

Transl(0,0,-10)

industrial automation78
Industrial automation

Forward Transformation

2nd Operation

1st Operation

With respect to the original frame

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Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

1st Operation

2nd Operation

With respect to the new frame

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Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

industrial automation81
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

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Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

industrial automation83
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

industrial automation84
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Rot(z,180)

industrial automation85
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Transl(x,b)

industrial automation86
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Transl(z,a)

industrial automation87
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Rot(y,90)

industrial automation88
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Rot(x,150)

industrial automation89
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

industrial automation90
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Transl(y,c)

industrial automation91
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Transl(z,a)

industrial automation92
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Rot(y,180)

industrial automation93
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Rot(x,90)

industrial automation94
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Transl(x,b)

industrial automation95
Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Rot(x,-90)

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Industrial automation

Relative Transformation

Rot(z,150)

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Industrial automation

Orientation transformations

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Industrial automation

Orientation transformations

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Industrial automation

Orientation transformations

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Industrial automation

A more complicated transformation matrix would require

complicated vector analysis.

To overcome this we use the Rotation transformation

Orientation transformations

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Industrial automation

Orientation transformations

With respect to the original frame

With respect to the new frame

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Industrial automation

All rotations: respect to a unit vector=> {O} or {N}

Orientation transformations

General vector: respect {O}

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Industrial automation

Prove:

Orientation transformations

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Industrial automation

Orientation transformations

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Industrial automation

Orientation transformations

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Industrial automation

Forward transformation

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Industrial automation

Inverse transformation

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Industrial automation

We know the original reference frame, the new frame

And a point P with respect to the new frame

What is the position of this point with respect to the new frame?

Inverse transformation

industrial automation109
Industrial automation

Inverse transformation

Prove that RTN x (RTN)-1 = I4x4

eee 309 industrial automation111
EEE-309Industrial automation

Chapter Scope:

  • To define frame allocation methods

Chapter Outcomes:

  • What is kinematics
  • Joint
  • Link
  • DH Rules
industrial automation112
Industrial automation

Kinematics is the relationship between the positions,

velocities and accelerations of the links of a manipulator

Kinematics

Define the position and orientation of the end effector

with respect to the robot base by the transformation matrices

The manipulator will be considered to be a series of links

that are connected with joints

industrial automation113
Industrial automation

Link 0

Robot Base

Joint 1

Waist

Link 1

Torso

Kinematics

Link n-1

Joint n

One degree of freedom

Link n

The link that is closer to the base is called the proximal link

and the link that is the most distant is called the distal link

Every link has an axis that connects the two joints.

An axis will describe the translation and the rotation, the joint axis.

Revolute joints can rotate around their axis and prismatic axes can slide.

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Industrial automation

Collinear: The joint axis and the link axis coincide

Orthogonal: The joint axis is perpendicular to the proximal link axis

Kinematics

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Industrial automation

Link Description

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Industrial automation

Link Description

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Industrial automation

Link Description

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0

1

2

Industrial automation

Link Description

Assume a robot with 4 links: 0, 1 2 3

3

{0}

{1}

{2}

{3}

0T1

1T2

0T3 =0T11T22T3

2T3

examples
Examples

2 joints

3 links (0=Robot base, 1=Torso, 2=Upper arm):

Define 3 reference frames {0}, {1}, {2}

Revolute joint 1 connects link 0 with link 1 or {0} with {1}

n-1=0

Prismatic joint 2 connects link 1 with link 2

examples123
Examples

What should you do if you wanted to describe the end effector?

eee 3008 industrial automation
EEE-3008Industrial automation

Lecture Scope:

  • To define the orientation of the end effector
  • To define manipulator dynamics (velocity)

Lecture Outcomes:

  • Robust and efficient orientation
  • Inverse kinematics
  • Velocity manipulator
industrial automation127
Industrial automation

Manipulator Orientation

industrial automation128
Industrial automation

l1=l2=0.5m and θ1=60ο, θ2=-35ο

Manipulator Orientation

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Industrial automation

Manipulator Orientation

industrial automation130
Industrial automation

Manipulator Orientation

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Industrial automation

d1=d2=0.5m and θ1=60ο

Manipulator Orientation

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Industrial automation

l2=0.5m and θ2=60ο

Manipulator Orientation

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Industrial automation

Manipulator Orientation II

Assume that xz=1

This method has a problem when θ=+/-90o

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Industrial automation

Manipulator Orientation II

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Industrial automation

Manipulator Orientation II

In robotics we

choose -180o

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Industrial automation

Manipulator Orientation II

The task now, is to find an expression

for sin(φ) and cos(φ) and then to solve for tan(φ)

By using the atan2 function

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Industrial automation

Manipulator Orientation II

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Industrial automation

Manipulator Orientation II

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Industrial automation

Velocity

Combine these concepts: velocity vector of VQ

Q is changing with respect to {B}

and {B} also changes with respect to {A}.

The two origins are associated with the vector AP:

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Industrial automation

Velocity

S is a skew-symmetric matrix

industrial automation142
Industrial automation

BQ that remains unchanged

with respect to {B}

Velocity

{B} is rotating with respect to {A}

industrial automation143
Industrial automation

Velocity

S is the angular velocity matrix

industrial automation144
Industrial automation

Velocity

  • Combine
  • the linear velocity of a vector with respect to a frame {B}
  • the linear velocity of {B} with respect to {A}
  • finally the angular velocity of {B} with respect to {A}
industrial automation145
Industrial automation

If the joint n is revolute:

Velocity

And if the joint n is prismatic:

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Industrial automation

RR manipulator

Velocity