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Chapter 25 The Industrial Revolution 1700-1900. By: Briana Evans World History 1 st period. Section 1 . The Beginnings of Industrialization. Main Idea. The Industrial Revolution started in England and soon spread to other countries. Terms To Know. Industrial Revolution Enclosure

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Chapter 25 The Industrial Revolution 1700-1900

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chapter 25 the industrial revolution 1700 1900

Chapter 25The Industrial Revolution1700-1900

By: Briana Evans

World History

1st period

section 1
Section 1

The Beginnings of Industrialization

main idea
Main Idea
  • The Industrial Revolution started in England and soon spread to other countries.
terms to know
Terms To Know
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Enclosure
  • Crop Rotation
  • Industrialization
  • Factors of Production
  • Factory
  • Entrepreneur

The Industrial Revolution refers to the increase of machine goods that began in England in the middle 1700s.

  • This Revolution spread from England to Continental Europe and North America.
industrial revolution begins in britian
  • Wealthy landowners dramatically improved farming methods.
  • These new techniques amounted to an agricultural revolution.
  • Enclosures was one of the fenced in fields created by the landowners.
  • This enclosure had two important results:

1.Landowners tried new agricultural methods.

2. Large landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or to give up farming.


Jethro Tull was one of the first scientific farmers. He invented the seed drill in 1701. It allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows.

rotating crops
“Rotating crops”
  • The process of crop rotation proved to be one of the best developments by the scientific farmers.
  • As food supplies increased and living conditions improved England’s population became larger.
why the industrial revolution began in england
“ Why the Industrial Revolution began in England”
  • Four factors contributed to Industrialization in Britain included:
  • Water and coal
  • Iron ore to construct machines
  • Rivers for island transportation
  • Harbors for merchant ships

Britain's highly developed banking system also contributed to the country’s industrialization.

Land, labor, and capital were known as the factors of production.

inventions spur industrilization changes in textile industry
  • Around 1764 James Hargreaves invented a spinning wheel named after his daughter, spinning Jenny. It allowed one spinner to work eight threads at a time.
  • Wealthy textile merchants set up the machines in large buildings called factories.
  • Britain's textile industry clothed the world in wool, linen, and cotton.
  • In 1733 a machinist named John Kay made a shuttle that sped back and fourth on wheels.
inprovements in transportation watts steam engine
  • James Watt figured out a way to make the steam engine work faster while burning less fuel.
  • In 1774 Watt joined with a business man named Matthew Boulton. Boulton was an entrepreneur who paid Watt a salary and encouraged him to build engines.
water transportation
“Water Transportation”
  • The Clermont ferried passengers up and down New York’s Hudson River.
  • Steam could also propel boats.
  • Robert Fulton built a steamboat called the Clermont.
road transportation
“Road transportation”
  • John McAdam equipped road beds with a layer of large stones for drainage.
  • Private investors formed companies that built roads and then operated them for profit.
the railway age begins
  • The railroad locomotive drove English industry after 1820.
steam engine locomotives
“Steam Engine Locomotives”
  • In 1804 Richard Trevithick won a bet of several thousand dollars. He did this by hauling ten tons of iron over nearly ten miles of track in steam-driven locomotive.
  • George Stephenson created the worlds first railroad line. It was to run from Yorkshire coal to the port of Stockton.
the liverpool manchester railroad
“The Liverpool-Manchester Railroad”
  • The Liverpool-Manchester Railway opened officially in 1830.
railroads revolutionize life in britain
“Railroads Revolutionize Life in Britain”
  • The invention of the locomotive had four major effects:
  • railroads spread industrial growth by giving manufactures a cheap way to transport materials.
  • The railroad boom created hundreds of new jobs for railroad workers and miners.
  • Railroads boosted England’s agricultural and fishing industries.
  • Making travel easier.
section 2
Section 2


main idea1
Main Idea

The factory system changed the way people lived and worked, introducing a variety of problems.

terms to know1
  • Urbanization
  • Middle Class
industrilization changes life
  • By the 1800’s people began to earn higher wages on factories than on farms.
industrial cities rise
“Industrial Cities Rise”
  • Between 1800 and 1850 the number of European cities rose from 22 to 47. Most of Europe’s urban areas at least doubled in population.
  • This period was one of the urbanization (city building and the movement of people to cities)
  • Britain’s capital, London, was the country’s most important city. It had a population of about 1 million people.
  • Birmingham and Sheffield became iron-smelting cities.
  • Liverpool, Manchester formed the center of Britain’s bustling cotton industry.
living conditions
“Living Conditions”
  • Because England’s cities grew rapidly, they had no development plans, or building codes.
  • Most of the unpaved streets had no drains, and garbage collected on top of them.
  • Workers lived in dark, dirty shelters, with whole families crowding into one bedroom.
  • Elizabeth Gaskell was a British writer whose novels show sympathy for the working class.
working conditions
“Working Conditions”
  • The average worker spent 14 hours a day at the job, 6 days a week.
  • Machines injured workers. A boiler might explode or a drive belt might catch an arm.
  • The most dangerous conditions were all found in coal mines.
  • Many children and women were employed in the mining industry because they were the cheapest source of labor.
class tensions grow
  • Middle Class was a social class made up of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and wealthy farmers.
middle class
“Middle Class”
  • The upper middle class consisted of government employees, doctors, lawyers, and managers of factories, mines, and shops.
  • The lower middle class included factory overseers and such skilled workers as toolmakers, mechanical drafters, and printers.
  • Landowners and aristocrats had occupied the top position in the British society.
  • Some factory owners, merchants, and bankers grew wealthier than the landowners and aristocrats.
the working class
“The working class”
  • The working class, saw little improvement in their living and working conditions.
  • They watched their livelihoods disappear as machines replaced them.
positive effects of the industrial revolutin
  • The Industrial Revolution had a number of positive effects. It created jobs for workers, contributed to the wealth of the nation, fostered technological progress and invention, and greatly increased the production of goods and raised the standard living.
  • Most important it provided the hope of improvement in peoples lives.
the mills of manchster
  • Manchester’s business owners worked many hours and risked there own money.
  • Children as young as 6 joined their parents in the factories.
  • To keep the children awake, mill supervisors beat them.
  • Manchester’s unique advantages made it a leading example of the new industrial city.
  • It had available labor from the nearby countryside and an outlet to the sea at Liverpool.
  • Manchester’s rapid, unplanned growth made it an unhealthy place for the poor people who lived and worked there.
section 3
Section 3

Industrialization Spreads

main idea2

Main Idea

The industrialization that began in Great Britain spread to other parts of the world.

terms to know2
Terms to Know
  • Stock
  • Corporation
industial development in the united states

America had fast-flowing, rivers, rich deposits of coal and iron ore, and a supply of laborers made up farm workers and immigrants.

industrialization in the u s
“Industrialization in the U.S.”
  • Young single women flocked from their rural homes to work as mill girls in factory towns.
  • They received higher wages and more independence but were watched closely inside and outside the factory by their employers.
  • Eager to keep the secrets of industrialization to itself, Britain had forbidden engineers, mechanics, and toolmakers to leave the country.
  • In 1789 Samuel Slater built a spinning machine from memory and a partial design.
later expansion of u s industry
“Later Expansion of U.S. Industry”
  • During the last third of the 1800s, the country had experienced a technological boom.
  • These included a wealth of natural resources, oil, coal, and iron.
  • Cities expanded rapidly due to their location near the railroads.
the rise of corporation
“The Rise of Corporation”
  • To raise money entrepreneurs sold shares of stock, or certain rights of ownership.
  • A corporation is a business owned by stockholders who share in its profits.
continental europe industrializes
  • The British miracle was the result of Britain’s profitable new methods of manufacturing goods.
beginnings of belgium
“Beginnings of Belgium”
  • British had rich deposits of iron ore and coal as well as fine waterways for transportation.

Samuel Slater smuggled the design of a spinning machine to the United States.

  • A carpenter named William Cockerill illegally made his way to Belgium in 1799. He carried secret plans for building spinning machinery.
germany industrializes
“Germany Industrializes”
  • Germany was politically divided in the early 1800’s.
  • German manufacturers sent their children to England to learn industrial management.
  • Germany built railroads that linked its growing manufacturing cities, such as Frankfurt.
expansion elsewhere in europe
“Expansion elsewhere in Europe”
  • France avoided the great social and economic problems caused by industrialization.
  • The accidents of geography held back others. In Austria-Hungary and Spain, transportation posed great obstacles.
  • In Germany , industrialization during the early 1800s proceeded by region rather than by country.
  • In France industrial growth occurred after 1830.
the impact of industrilization

“Rise of Global Inequality”

  • Industrialized countries viewed poor countries as markets for their manufactured products.
  • Other European countries began seizing colonies for their economic resources.
transformation in society
“Transformation in society”
  • Revolutions in agriculture, production, and transportation changes the lives of many people.
  • Industrialization gave Europe economic power
  • Population, health, and wealth rose in industrialized countries.
  • Middle class created great opportunities for education
section 4
Section 4

Reforming the Industrial World

main idea3
Main Idea
  • The Industrial Revolution led to economic, social, and political reforms.
the philosophers of industrialization
  • Laissez faire refers to the economic policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference.
laissez faire economics
“Laissez-faire Economics”
  • Smith’s arguments rested on what he called the three natural laws of economics:
  • law of self interest
  • law of competition
  • law of supply and demand
  • Philosophers believed that if the government allowed free trade the economy would prosper.
  • Adam Smith was a professor who defended the idea of a free economy.
the economics of capitalism
“The economics of Capitalism”
  • Capitalism is an economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit.
  • Laissez-faire thinkers such as Smith opposed government efforts to help poor workers.
  • They thought that creating minimum wage laws and better working conditions would upset the free market system, lower profits, and undermine the production of wealth in society.
the rise of socialism


  • Jeremy Bentham introduced the philosophy of utilitarianism.
  • Bentham believed that in general the individual should be free to purse his or her own advantage without interference from the state.
  • John Stewart Mill believed it was wrong that workers should lead deprived lives that sometimes bordered on starvation. He wanted to help ordinary working people with policies that would lead to an equal division of profits.
utopian ideas
“Utopian Ideas”
  • A British factory owner named Robert Owen improved working conditions for his employees.
  • He prohibited children under ten from working in the mills.
  • In socialism, the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all.
  • Socialists argued that the government should plan the economy rather than depend on free-market capitalism to do the job.
marxism radical socialism
  • The writings of a German socialist, Karl Max introduced the world to a radical type of socialism called Marxism.
  • While the wealthy controlled the means of producing goods, the poor performed backbreaking labor under terrible conditions.
  • According to Marx the Industrial Revolution enriched the wealthy and impoverished the poor.
the future according to marx
“The future according to Marx”
  • Believed the capitalist system would eventually destroy itself.
  • Factories would drive small artisans out of business.
  • Marx described communism as a form of complete socialism in which the means of production would be owned by the people.
labor unions and reform laws unionization
  • Skilled workers led the way in forming unions.
  • The combination Acts of 1799 and1800 outlawed unions and strikes.
  • 1875 British trade unions had won the right to strike and riot peacefully.
  • A union spoke for all the workers in a particular trade. They bargained for better working conditions and higher pay.
  • Strike was a refusal to work.
reform laws
“Reform laws”
  • New laws formed some of the worst abuses of industrialization.
  • Parliament began investigating child labor and passed the Factory Act of 1833. The new law made it illegal to have children under 9 years old.
  • Children 9 to 12 could not work more than 8 hours a day. Ages 13 to17 could not work more than 12 hours.
the reform movement spreads
  • William Wilberforce led the fight for the end of the slave trade and slavery in the British Empire.
  • Parliament passed a bill to end the slave trade in the British West Indies in 1807.
  • Women formed unions in the trades where they were dominated.