Measles. Etiology. Measles virus is a spherical, nonsegmented, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus Morbillivirus genus in the family of Paramyxoviridae. killed by ultraviolet light and heat, necessitating a cold chain for vaccine transport and storage. Epidemiology.
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more 1- respiratory droplets over short distances
less 2- small-particle aerosols that remain suspended in the air for long periods
3- direct contact with infected secretions but does not survive for long on fomites.
2-secondary infections with bacteria and viruses that cause pneumonia and diarrhea
3- Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to recall antigens, such as tuberculin, are suppressed, and cellular and humoral responses to new antigens are impaired
4- Reactivation of tuberculosis and remission of autoimmune diseases
1- persons presenting with fever and generalized rash
2- measles virus is known to be circulating
3- the patient has a history of travel to endemic areas
3- Appropriate precautions to prevent nosocomial transmission
5- laboratory confirmation
1- IgM antibody in a single specimen of serum or oral fluid is considered
2-fourfold or greater increase in IgG antibody levels between acute- and convalescent-phase serum specimens.
2- late: (months to years) inclusion body encephalitis (MIBE) and subacutesclerosingpanencephalitis (SSPE), persistent measles virus infection. MIBE is a rare but fatal complication that affects individuals with defective cellular immunity and typically occurs months after infection. SSPE is a slowly progressive disease characterized by seizures and progressive deterioration of cognitive and motor functions, with death occurring 5–15 years after measles virus infection. SSPE most often develops in persons infected with measles virus at <2 years of age.