Chapter Two:Keeping Food Safe Pro Start Year One
What is a Food borne illness outbreak? First it’s important to note that a food borne Illness is transmitted to people by food. A Food Borne Illness Outbreak is when 2 or more people get sick after eating the same food.
Who does an outbreak affect most? • Out breaks of food borne illness are likely to affect high risk populations… • Elderly People • Infants and Preschool age children • Pregnant Women • People with cancer, HIV/AIDS, transplant recipients, and chemotherapy patients What do these people have in common?
What are the risks establishments may face if they are associated with an outbreak? Examples • Loss of customers and sales • Loss of prestige and reputation • Negative media exposure • Legal suits resulting in lawyer & court costs • Increased insurance premiums • Lowered employee morale • Employee absenteeism • Staff retraining
Activity Divide into four equal groups. Each group will be given a scenario in which a food borne illness outbreak has occurred. As a group discuss 1-what risks the establishment faces due to their association with the out break 2-how they can resolve the issue. 3- What food safety measures (if any) could have been taken to prevent the outbreak from occurring . Be prepared to read your scenario to the class, present the 3-5 risks that your establishment faces, your solution plan, and the possible safety measures.
Scenario Number 1:An elementary school on the east coast serves lunch to 500 students every day. On One particular day 400 out of the 500 students became very ill after being served lunch. Later, it was discovered that the source of the illness was contaminated egg salad sandwiches that were on the menu that day. What are three risks that the school district faced? What could they do to resolve this issue? What food safety measures could have been made to prevent this outbreak?
Scenario Number 2:In 2008 there was a nationwide salmonella outbreak. The outbreak was traced to a peanut butter plant in Blakely Georgia. The contaminated peanut butter sickened more than 400 people in 43 states, and killed three elderly people in a Minnesota nursing home. The peanut butter was found in several products and had been distributed to schools, hospitals, and long-term care facilities. What are three risks that the peanut butter company faced? What could they do to resolve this issue? What food safety measures could have been made to prevent this outbreak?
Scenario Number 3:An Elderly Women died and Several hundred other people became sick after eating food served at a state fair. Most of the people who became sick were tourists to the area. Health Departments across the country received reports of illness, and many people were hospitalized. What are three risks that the state, city commerce, and food vendors are now faced with? What could they do to resolve this issue? What food safety measures could have been made to prevent this outbreak?
Scenario Number 4:In 2006 the fast food Chain Wendy’s in North Ogden Utah was confronted with an E-coli outbreak. This particular Wendy’s had catered a school district luncheon with salads containing contaminated lettuce. Several People from this luncheon were diagnosed with E-coli and filed lawsuits against the company. Over the next four years 3 other Wendy’s Restaurant chains were faced with the same E-coli outbreak. What are three risks that Wendy’s faced? What could they do to resolve this issue? What food safety measures could have been made to prevent this outbreak?
There are 3 types of contaminates 1- Biological Contaminates: Contaminates that have living organisms (think biology: the study of life).
Biological Contaminates Come from Microorganisms • Living, single-celled, organisms that can cause food spoilage and illness. It can be transferred from hands and surfaces to other food and surfaces. • Microorganisms that cause illness are called pathogens. + =
The Sneeze http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LzH-yat-mBI
4 Pathogens (biological contaminates) that contaminate food • 1. Bacteria: Bacteria is produced when conditions are just right (time, temp, etc.). They will multiply rapidly in food and can produce toxins that are poisonous. • Ex. Salmonella • 2. Virus: Leading cause of food borne illness. Viruses cannot grow in food. They are transported by a human to food. If a virus is eaten they can grow inside the person’s intestine. • Ex. Hepatitis A How can you as a food handler prevent illness caused by bacteria and viruses?
Biological contaminates cont.. • 3. Parasites: Rarest pathogen to cause a food borne illness. Cannot grow in food. They need to live inside a host (an animal or plant which humans like to eat) to survive. Ex. Cryptosporidium • 4. Fungi: Can cause illness but is most likely responsible for the spoiling of food. Examples of Fungi are associated with yeast. How can you as a food handler prevent illness through parasites and fungi?
These four pathogens need 6 things to grow I’m F.A.T T.O.M the Pathogen I’ll help you remember what I need to grow!
TCS Foods • TCS foods are foods that are more vulnerable than others to attract pathogen growth. TCS Stands for TIME and TEMPERATURE CONTROL for SAFETY These are all elements we can control as food handlers!
Examples of TCS Foods • Milk and Dairy Products • Meat: Beef, Pork, and Lamb • Eggs • Poultry • Fish • Baked Potatoes • Heat treated plant food ( cooked rice, beans, vegetables) • Tofu and other soy based products • Sprouts and sprout seed • Sliced melons and cut tomatoes
2- Chemical Contaminates • Chemicals have caused many cases of food borne illness. These contaminates come from everyday items found in the food service industry. • Examples of chemicals linked to illness include • Cleaners • Sanitizers • Polishes • Machine lubricants It is important that these chemicals be properly stored away from any food being prepared!
3- Physical Contaminates • Contamination that happens when objects get into the food. • Examples • Metal shavings from cans • Glass from broken light bulbs • Fingernails, hair, bandages • Jewelry • Fruit Pits Most of these can be easily prevented by inspecting food closely and by having good personal hygiene habits.
Quick Review 1. What is a biological contaminate? Give an example 2. What does F.A.T T.O.M stand for? What type of foods are most affected? 3. What is a chemical contaminate? Give an example 4. What is a physical contaminate? Give an example
Food Defense Food defense is the careful prevention of purposeful food contamination from competitors, past employees, or vendors. Ways to prevent: Control who has access to the kitchen at all times Staff should always wear badges and uniforms “If you see something, Say something” policy *Mrs. Doubt fire clip*
Common Allergens and Prevention • A food allergy is the body’s negative reaction to a specific food. People with a food allergy can get severely sick or even die from eating even a small amount of the triggering food. Most common allergies include • Milk and Dairy Products • Eggs • Fish/ Shellfish • Wheat • Soy • Peanuts Dishes that contain these common allergens need to be clearly indicated on the menu. Wait staff needs to be very knowledgeable and able to answer any allergen related questions . If you aren’t sure you need to ask!! How would you react to someone who is having an allergic reaction in your restaurant?
Best way to keep food safe Personal Hygiene & Cleanliness
How do Food Handlers Contaminate Food? • Having a food borne illness • Having wounds • Having contact with a person who is ill • Touching hair, face, body • Touching anything that may contaminate their hands • Having symptoms of illness • Eating, drinking, smoking or chewing gum while preparing or serving food
Food Handlers should Always… • Cover their hair, wearing a clean hat or other hair covering • Wear clean clothes everyday • Remove and properly store aprons when leaving a prep area • Remove all jewelry • Have clean fingers (no nail polish or acrylic nails) • Change gloves after dealing with raw and ready to eat foods to prevent cross contamination Never.. • Work or be near food if you have a sore throat, fever, diarrhea, been vomiting, or if you have been diagnosed with a food borne illness.
What would you do? You are the manager of a local restaurant. One of your employees arrives at work complaining of a stomachache and a fever. Today will be a busy day and your extra staff member is on vacation. There are already many dinner reservations for that evening. What do you do?
Proper Hand washing Technique http://www.webmd.com/video/dirty-truth-handwashing
Cross contamination When microorganisms are transferred from one surface to another Prevention: 1. Sanitize workstation, cutting boards and utensils. 2. Don’t allow ready-to-eat food to touch surfaces that have touched raw meat, seafood & poultry. 3. If using the same table to prep raw and ready to eat food – SANITIZE between each product.
Cleaning vs. Sanitizing • Cleaning: removes food and other dirt from a surface • Sanitizing: reduces pathogens on a surface to safe levels through the use of chemicals or heat. • Proper cleaning and sanitizing procedure • Clean (dry wipe to surface) • Rinse (wipe with a damp material) • Sanitize (using chemical) • Air Dry
What makes a sanitizer affective? • Contact Time • Object must be immersed in the solution for a specific amount of time dependent on the sanitizer being used • Temperature • Water must reach the correct temperature • Concentration • Proper chemical to water ratio or sanitizer can be ineffective
Proper Cleaning Procedure • Turn to Page140 in your book • Using the diagram found on this page, draw out the proper way to wash equipment and dishes in a three compartment sink. • Why is it important that we follow this model in our kitchen?
Master Cleaning Schedule • A master cleaning schedule is a system that organizes all of the cleaning and sanitation tasks in the kitchen. • A good cleaning schedule should include • What should be cleaned • Who should clean it • When it needs to be cleaned • What you need to use to clean it
Time Temperature abuse • Most food bourn illness happens because TCS foods have been time-temperature abused. What is a TCS food again? Food is time-temperature abused any time it is • Cooked to the wrong internal temperature • Held at the wrong temperature • Or cooled or reheated incorrectly The longer food stays in the temperature danger zone the more pathogens have time to grow. If food stays in the danger zone of 41-135 degrees for longer than 4 hours throw it out.
Suppliers • Approved food supplier: A supplier that has been properly inspected and approved by state and federal law. Which means that the supplier uses good food safety practices giving your establishment safe products.
Accepting and Receiving food • Receiving and Accepting food: When food comes into the restaurant from a supplier you need to check for the following.. • All foods are at the correct temperature • All packaging should be clean and sealed • All meat, poultry, and eggs should have a USDA stamp • All food is of acceptable quality (no odd colors, smells, textures, or abnormalities)
Proper Storage • All TCS Foods stored at 41 degrees or 135 degrees. • Always store meats wrapped tightly and towards the bottom of the fridge • Always abide by the FIFO Principle • Rotation Principle where you store items with the closest expiration date towards the front so it can be used before the newer product • Everything needs to be correctly labeled with • The name of the food • The date it was stored • When it should be thrown out (seven days after storage)
Temperature Measuring Devices • Thermometers (two types) • Thermocouples • Used to measure hot and cold foods digitally through a metal probe. The Sensing area is on the tip so it doesn’t Need to be inserted as far. • Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometer • Used to measure both hot and cold foods through it’s metal stem. Insert up to the thermometer’s dimple. Pros and cons of each? How do you Calibrate?
Proper Temperatures for TSC Foods • Minimum internal temperatures • Poultry (chicken, turkey, or duck) 165 degrees • Ground meet (beef, pork, any other meat) and eggs that are being held for service 155 degrees • Seafood, steaks/chops 145 degrees • Roasts (any type of meat) 145 degrees • Anything needing to be hot held for service 135 degrees
Holding, Cooling and Reheating TCS foods • Holding food for service • Hold hot food at a temperature of 135 or higher and cold food at a temperature of 41 or lower • Cooling food • TCS foods need to be gradually cooled to a temperature of 41 within 6 hours of preparation • Reheating food • All TCS foods need to be reheated to a temperature of 165
Service • Service • Handle ready to eat foods with tongs and/or gloves • Use separate utensils for each food item • Store serving utensils with the handle extended above the rim to avoid any human contact with the food being served • When serving off site • Pack food in insulted containers to keep out of danger zone • Check internal temperatures regularly
HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point A food safety management system that can identify major food hazards at specific points within a food’s flow through the operation
HACCP Seven Principles Principle #1: Conduct a hazard analysis Look for the potential hazards in your establishment based on what is on your menu, TCS foods being served, and what your staff is most concerned about. Example: Bacterial growth between storage, preparation, and service.
HACCP Seven Principles Principle #2: Determine critical control points (CCP’s) Finding the points where the identified hazards can be prevented Example: When is bacterial most likely to occur? How can we prevent this?
HACCP Seven Principles Principle #3: Establish critical limits For each CCP that you have identified determine a requirement that must be met in order to prevent the hazard. Example: Keep the Chicken out of the danger zone, don’t cross contaminate, and sanitize any area the chicken has touched in order to eliminate bacterial growth.
HACCP Seven Principles Principle #4: Establish monitoring procedures Determine the best way for your staff to make sure critical limits are being met. Identify who with monitor them and how often. Example: Everyday the grill cook must check the internal temperatures of all chicken breasts and record it on a log. The log will be checked periodically by management.
HACCP Seven Principles • Principle #5: Identify corrective actions What will you do if a critical limit hasn’t been met? What step will you take to fix the problem? Example: if a chicken breast doesn’t reach the correct temperature within the cook time the grill cook will keep cooking the chicken until it reaches required temp. This corrective action will also be recorded on the log.
HACCP Seven Principles Principle #6: Verify the system works Determine if the plan is working. Evaluate it by checking the records you are keeping and by seeing if they are helping to reduce hazards. Example: Temperature logs are checked for patterns. If patterns are noticed management fixes the issue by working with suppliers and staff.