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Make It Safe, Keep It Safe Food Safety Education UC ANR Staff and Volunteers. Food Safety - Why the Fuss?. Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. each year. 76 million people become ill 325,000 people are hospitalized 5,000 people die. Source: Centers for Disease Control, 2006.

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food safety why the fuss
Food Safety - Why the Fuss?

Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. each year

  • 76 million people become ill
  • 325,000 people are hospitalized
  • 5,000 people die

Source: Centers for Disease Control, 2006


Food Safety - Why the Fuss?

  • Help your clients, volunteers, and staff stay healthy
  • Less risk for your agency, medical problems, legal action law suits, and bad feelings

Safe food practices

add up to less risk!

food safety training
Food Safety Training

Who recommends a basic knowledge of food safety ?

  • Food & Drug Administration
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • State and Local Health Departments

Why Gamble With Your Health?

  • You can become ill in ½ hour to 6 weeks after eating unsafe foods

Possible More Severe Conditions


Dehydration(sometimes severe)


people with a higher risk of foodborne illness
People With A Higher Risk Of Foodborne Illness


Young children andolder adults


People with weakened immune

systems & some chronic diseases

what is foodborne illness
What is Foodborne Illness?

It is an illness caused by the consumption of a contaminated food

Contamination the presence of harmful substances or conditions in food that can cause illness or injury to people who eat unsafe food

foodborne hazards
Foodborne Hazards
  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Biological

Physical Hazards

Foreign objects can cause illness or injury

more physical hazards
More Physical Hazards
  • Toothpicks
  • Metal shavings
  • Glass fragments
  • Jewelry
  • Adhesive bandages
chemical hazards
Chemical Hazards
  • Cleaning Solutions
  • Insecticides
biological hazards
Biological Hazards
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Parasites

Bacteria are the most reported cause of foodborne illness

u s foodborne disease cases by known etiology 2005
U. S. Foodborne Disease Cases by Known Etiology(2005)

Outbreak Surveillance Annual Reports, 2005,

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention







Sources of Microorganisms

Food Handlers

Packaging Material

Raw Ingredients


foods that bacteria contaminate
Foods that Bacteria Contaminate
  • High moisture content
  • High protein content
  • Cut fruits & veggies

Even if tasting would tell …why risk getting sick?

  • Even a “tiny taste” can make you sick
  • As few as 10 bacteria can cause foodborne illnesses!
four steps to prevent foodborne illness
Four Steps to Prevent Foodborne Illness

The 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines give four steps to prevent foodborne illness.


4 Steps to Food Safety

  • Clean
  • Separate
  • Cook
  • Chill

Section 3A – Step One: Clean

  • Clean: Clean vs. Sanitary
  • Hand Washing & Personal Hygiene
  • Utensils & Surfaces
  • Disinfect Solution
  • Fruits & Vegetables
  • Activities
  • Handwashing—Glo Germ
  • Portable Handwashing Station
  • Disinfect Solution—mix and demo
  • Continue Chilling Activity
  • Continue Bacteria Multiplication Activity

Step 1: CLEAN


  • Hands
  • Utensils
  • Surfaces
  • Fruits &Vegetables

Do NOT wash or rinse meat and poultry as this could spread bacteria to other foods

clean fruits vegetables
Clean Fruits & Vegetables
  • Wash with cold, running water
  • Scrub the outside with a CLEAN vegetable brush
  • Do NOT use soap or other cleaners
clean and sanitary
Clean and Sanitary


  • Reducing the number of disease-causing organisms on the surface of equipment and utensils to safe levels


  • Remove soil from the surfaces of equipment and utensils

Good Personal Hygiene essential for people who work with foods


Good Personal Hygiene Requires:

  • Clean clothing
  • Tie hair back or wear hat or hair net
  • No smoking and/or eating in food preparation and washing areas
  • No jewelry

Wash Your hands!

Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness


Know how to wash hands:

  • Wet hands with warm water
  • Apply soap
  • Rub hands for 20 seconds
  • Rub between fingers, nails
  • Rub forearms; then rinse
  • Use single use towel to dry
  • Turn off water with towel
  • Discard towel

Wash Hands after …

Sneezing, blowing nose & coughing

Handling pets

Using bathroom orchanging diapers

AND before ...

Touching a cut or open sore

Handling food


Chemical Hand Sanitizers

are NOT an acceptable replacement for

hand washing

But let’s talk about them- - -


Section 3B – Step 2: Separate

  • Separate
  • Cross-contamination—what it is—how to prevent
  • Microbial
  • --Cutting boards
  • --Raw meat containers
  • --Food storage
  • Activities
  • Cross-Contamination with Glitter
  • Continue Chilling Activity
  • Continue Bacteria Multiplication Activity

Step 2: Separate

Separateraw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods when shopping, preparing or storing foods.


Cross Contamination

... is the transfer of harmful substances from one food to another by way of hands, utensils, equipment, or directly by splash and drippage








Use Different Cutting Boards

  • Use one cutting boardfor fresh produce
  • Use a separate one for raw meat, poultry and seafood

When Groovy Isn’t Good!

Replace cutting boards if they become excessively worn or develop hard-to-clean grooves


Use Clean Plates

  • NEVER serve foods on a plate that held raw meat, poultry or seafood
  • First WASH the plate in hot, soapy water, and rinse before reusing
avoid cross contamination with utensils
Avoid Cross Contaminationwith Utensils
  • Clean and sanitize utensils and surfaces:
    • After working with raw foods
    • Before working with ready-to-eat foods
avoid cross contamination in storage
Avoid Cross Contaminationin Storage
  • Keep raw foods separate from ready-to-eat and cooked foods
  • Store cooked and ready-to-eat foods above raw foods

Sick people should not prepare, cook or serve food. How sick is too sick?

  • Colds
  • Coughs
  • Sore Throat
  • Symptoms of intestinal illness (vomiting, diarrhea, fever)

Section 3C – Step 3: Cook

  • Cook
  • Danger Zone
  • Cooking & Freezing and microbes
  • Using thermometers/Types of thermometers
  • Is it Done Yet?—temperatures for safety
  • Microwave cooking
  • Activities
  • Calibration of Thermometers
  • Continuation of Chilling Activities
  • Continuation of Bacteria Multiplication Activity

Step 3: COOK

Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms


The ONLY way to know if food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is to use a food thermometer!

calibrate your thermometer
Calibrate Your Thermometer
  • On a routine basis to assure accuracy
  • After measuring extremely hot and cold temperatures
  • When the thermometer is dropped

Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature?



Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service




This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it’s undercooked

Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperaturesas low as 135º F

This IS a safely cooked hamburger, cooked to an internal temperatureof 160º F, even though it's pink inside

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service


Using a Food Thermometer

  • Place in the thickest part of food
  • Do NOT touch bone, fat, or gristle
  • Begin checking temperature toward the end of cooking, but before the food is expected to be "done"
  • For irregularly shaped food – such as beef roast – check the temperature in several places
  • Clean thermometer with hot soapy water before and after EACH use!

Thermometers and Thin Foods

  • For thinner foods such as meat patties, pork chops and chicken breasts, use a DIGITAL instant-read thermometer – it doesn’t have to be inserted as far as a DIAL instant-read thermometer
  • Disposable temperature indicators are another option

For really thin foods, it maybe necessary to inserta digital thermometer or disposable temperatureindicator at an angle


Thermometers in Thin Foods

For an "instant-read" DIAL food thermometer, insert the probe in the side of the food so the entire sensing area (usually 2-3 inches) is positioned through the center of the food

When grilling or frying, remove the food from the heat source before inserting the thermometer


When cooking food in a microwave oven:

  • Cook to temperature of 165oF
  • Cover, rotate and stir
  • Allow to stand after cooking

Section 3D – Step 4: Chill

  • Factors affecting foodborne illness
  • Bacteria Multiplication
  • Cooling hot foods
  • Thaw in refrigerator
  • Refrigerator temperatures/thermometers
  • Activities
  • Complete Chilling Activity
  • Complete Bacteria Multiplication Activity

Step 4: CHILL

Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly and defrost foods properly

causes of foodborne illness
Causes of Foodborne Illness

4% Use of leftovers

7% Improper cleaning

7% Cross contamination

11% Contaminated raw food

12% Inadequate reheating

16% Improper hot storage

16% Inadequate cooking

20% Infected persons touching food

21% Time between preparing and serving

40% Improper cooling of foods


A Multiplication Quiz

Bacteria numbers can double

every 20 minutes!

How many bacteria will result if 1 BACTERIUM is left at room temperature for 7 hours?


Answer: 2,097,152!

Refrigerate perishable foods quickly!


How To Be Cool – Part 1

  • Cool food in shallow containers
  • Food should be no more than 2” deep
  • Stir periodically speeds up cooling process

How to Be Cool – Part 2

  • It’s OK to refrigerate foods while they’re still warm
  • Leave container cover open until food has cooled
pass food through the danger zone as few times as possible
Pass Food through the Danger Zoneas Few Times as Possible
  • Hot foods should be cooled and reheated only one time
  • Cold foods should be kept on ice or in a cooler
  • Discard any remaining food that has been at room temperature for over an hour
pass food quickly through the danger zone
Thaw foods in the refrigerator

Cook foods to correct temperature

Reheat foods to at least 165oF

Reheat gravies, sauces and soups to a boil

Cool foods from 140o to 40oF quickly

Pass Food Quickly Through the Danger Zone
keep cut fruits veggies cold
Keep Cut Fruits & Veggies Cold
  • Cut fruits and vegetables can grow bacteria
  • Keep cut fruits and vegetables cold
  • Do not leave out of refrigeration more than 2 hours


  • Plan ahead to defrost foods
  • The best way to thaw foods is in the refrigerator

Recommended Refrigerator & Freezer Temperatures

  • Set refrigerator at 33º to 40º F
  • Set freezer at0º F or less

Monitor Temperatures inRefrigerators & Freezers

  • Place thermometer in easy to read locations inside the front of the refrigerator or freezer
  • Check temperature weekly

Section 4 –Food Safety: Putting It all Together

  • Summary & Closing
  • What’s wrong with this picture
  • Why food safety is important
  • Activities
  • What’s wrong with this picture
  • Post-test
  • Evaluation

CreditsCenters for Disease ControlUniversity of California Cooperative Extension Agriculture and Natural ResourcesMake it Safe. Serve it Safe, UC ANRAlice Henneman, University of Nebraska Cooperative ExtensionUnited States Department of AgricultureUnited States Food & Drug Administration

make it safe core issues team
Make It Safe Core Issues Team


Christine Bruhn -

Linda Harris –


Mary L. Blackburn –

Maria Giovanni –

Anna Martin –

Diane L. Metz –

Shirley Peterson –

Patti Wooten Swanson –

September 2006