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Make It Safe, Keep It Safe Food Safety Education UC ANR Staff and Volunteers. Food Safety - Why the Fuss?. Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. each year. 76 million people become ill 325,000 people are hospitalized 5,000 people die. Source: Centers for Disease Control, 2006.

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food safety why the fuss
Food Safety - Why the Fuss?

Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. each year

  • 76 million people become ill
  • 325,000 people are hospitalized
  • 5,000 people die

Source: Centers for Disease Control, 2006

slide4

Food Safety - Why the Fuss?

  • Help your clients, volunteers, and staff stay healthy
  • Less risk for your agency, medical problems, legal action law suits, and bad feelings

Safe food practices

add up to less risk!

food safety training
Food Safety Training

Who recommends a basic knowledge of food safety ?

  • Food & Drug Administration
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • State and Local Health Departments
slide6

Why Gamble With Your Health?

  • You can become ill in ½ hour to 6 weeks after eating unsafe foods
slide8

Possible More Severe Conditions

Meningitis

Dehydration(sometimes severe)

Paralysis

people with a higher risk of foodborne illness
People With A Higher Risk Of Foodborne Illness

Infants

Young children andolder adults

Pregnantwomen

People with weakened immune

systems & some chronic diseases

what is foodborne illness
What is Foodborne Illness?

It is an illness caused by the consumption of a contaminated food

contamination
Contamination

...is the presence of harmful substances or conditions in food that can cause illness or injury to people who eat unsafe food

foodborne hazards
Foodborne Hazards
  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Biological
slide14

Physical Hazards

Foreign objects can cause illness or injury

more physical hazards
More Physical Hazards
  • Toothpicks
  • Metal shavings
  • Glass fragments
  • Jewelry
  • Adhesive bandages
chemical hazards
Chemical Hazards
  • Cleaning Solutions
  • Insecticides
biological hazards
Biological Hazards
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Parasites

Bacteria are the most reported cause of foodborne illness

u s foodborne disease cases by known etiology 2005
U. S. Foodborne Disease Cases by Known Etiology(2005)

Outbreak Surveillance Annual Reports, 2005,

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

slide20

Water

Air

Dirt

Insects

Animals

Sources of Microorganisms

Food Handlers

Packaging Material

Raw Ingredients

Surfaces

foods that bacteria contaminate
Foods that Bacteria Contaminate
  • High moisture content
  • High protein content
  • Cut fruits & veggies
slide23

Even if tasting would tell …why risk getting sick?

  • Even a “tiny taste” can make you sick
  • As few as 10 bacteria can cause foodborne illnesses!
four steps to prevent foodborne illness
Four Steps to Prevent Foodborne Illness

The 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines give four steps to prevent foodborne illness.

http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/recommendations.htm

slide25

4 Steps to Food Safety

  • Clean
  • Separate
  • Cook
  • Chill
slide26

Section 3A – Step One: Clean

  • Clean: Clean vs. Sanitary
  • Hand Washing & Personal Hygiene
  • Utensils & Surfaces
  • Disinfect Solution
  • Fruits & Vegetables
  • Activities
  • Handwashing—Glo Germ
  • Portable Handwashing Station
  • Disinfect Solution—mix and demo
  • Continue Chilling Activity
  • Continue Bacteria Multiplication Activity
slide27

Step 1: CLEAN

Clean:

  • Hands
  • Utensils
  • Surfaces
  • Fruits &Vegetables

Do NOT wash or rinse meat and poultry as this could spread bacteria to other foods

clean fruits vegetables
Clean Fruits & Vegetables
  • Wash with cold, running water
  • Scrub the outside with a CLEAN vegetable brush
  • Do NOT use soap or other cleaners
clean and sanitary
Clean and Sanitary

Sanitary

  • Reducing the number of disease-causing organisms on the surface of equipment and utensils to safe levels

Clean

  • Remove soil from the surfaces of equipment and utensils
slide30

Good Personal Hygiene

...is essential for people who work with foods

slide31

Good Personal Hygiene Requires:

  • Clean clothing
  • Tie hair back or wear hat or hair net
  • No smoking and/or eating in food preparation and washing areas
  • No jewelry
slide32

Wash Your hands!

Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness

slide33

Know how to wash hands:

  • Wet hands with warm water
  • Apply soap
  • Rub hands for 20 seconds
  • Rub between fingers, nails
  • Rub forearms; then rinse
  • Use single use towel to dry
  • Turn off water with towel
  • Discard towel
slide34

Wash Hands after …

Sneezing, blowing nose & coughing

Handling pets

Using bathroom orchanging diapers

AND before ...

Touching a cut or open sore

Handling food

slide35

Chemical Hand Sanitizers

are NOT an acceptable replacement for

hand washing

But let’s talk about them- - -

slide37

Section 3B – Step 2: Separate

  • Separate
  • Cross-contamination—what it is—how to prevent
  • Microbial
  • --Cutting boards
  • --Raw meat containers
  • --Food storage
  • Activities
  • Cross-Contamination with Glitter
  • Continue Chilling Activity
  • Continue Bacteria Multiplication Activity
slide38

Step 2: Separate

Separateraw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods when shopping, preparing or storing foods.

slide39

Cross Contamination

... is the transfer of harmful substances from one food to another by way of hands, utensils, equipment, or directly by splash and drippage

HANDS

CHEMICALS

FOOD

UTENSILS &

EQUIPMENT

BACTERIA

slide41

Use Different Cutting Boards

  • Use one cutting boardfor fresh produce
  • Use a separate one for raw meat, poultry and seafood
slide42

When Groovy Isn’t Good!

Replace cutting boards if they become excessively worn or develop hard-to-clean grooves

slide43

Use Clean Plates

  • NEVER serve foods on a plate that held raw meat, poultry or seafood
  • First WASH the plate in hot, soapy water, and rinse before reusing
avoid cross contamination with utensils
Avoid Cross Contaminationwith Utensils
  • Clean and sanitize utensils and surfaces:
    • After working with raw foods
    • Before working with ready-to-eat foods
avoid cross contamination in storage
Avoid Cross Contaminationin Storage
  • Keep raw foods separate from ready-to-eat and cooked foods
  • Store cooked and ready-to-eat foods above raw foods
slide46

Sick people should not prepare, cook or serve food. How sick is too sick?

  • Colds
  • Coughs
  • Sore Throat
  • Symptoms of intestinal illness (vomiting, diarrhea, fever)
slide47

Section 3C – Step 3: Cook

  • Cook
  • Danger Zone
  • Cooking & Freezing and microbes
  • Using thermometers/Types of thermometers
  • Is it Done Yet?—temperatures for safety
  • Microwave cooking
  • Activities
  • Calibration of Thermometers
  • Continuation of Chilling Activities
  • Continuation of Bacteria Multiplication Activity
slide48

Step 3: COOK

Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms

slide51

The ONLY way to know if food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is to use a food thermometer!

calibrate your thermometer
Calibrate Your Thermometer
  • On a routine basis to assure accuracy
  • After measuring extremely hot and cold temperatures
  • When the thermometer is dropped
slide55

Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature?

A

B

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm

slide56

A

B

This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it’s undercooked

Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperaturesas low as 135º F

This IS a safely cooked hamburger, cooked to an internal temperatureof 160º F, even though it's pink inside

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm

slide57

Using a Food Thermometer

  • Place in the thickest part of food
  • Do NOT touch bone, fat, or gristle
  • Begin checking temperature toward the end of cooking, but before the food is expected to be "done"
  • For irregularly shaped food – such as beef roast – check the temperature in several places
  • Clean thermometer with hot soapy water before and after EACH use!
slide58

Thermometers and Thin Foods

  • For thinner foods such as meat patties, pork chops and chicken breasts, use a DIGITAL instant-read thermometer – it doesn’t have to be inserted as far as a DIAL instant-read thermometer
  • Disposable temperature indicators are another option

For really thin foods, it maybe necessary to inserta digital thermometer or disposable temperatureindicator at an angle

slide59

Thermometers in Thin Foods

For an "instant-read" DIAL food thermometer, insert the probe in the side of the food so the entire sensing area (usually 2-3 inches) is positioned through the center of the food

When grilling or frying, remove the food from the heat source before inserting the thermometer

slide60

When cooking food in a microwave oven:

  • Cook to temperature of 165oF
  • Cover, rotate and stir
  • Allow to stand after cooking
slide61

Section 3D – Step 4: Chill

  • Factors affecting foodborne illness
  • Bacteria Multiplication
  • Cooling hot foods
  • Thaw in refrigerator
  • Refrigerator temperatures/thermometers
  • Activities
  • Complete Chilling Activity
  • Complete Bacteria Multiplication Activity
slide62

Step 4: CHILL

Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly and defrost foods properly

causes of foodborne illness
Causes of Foodborne Illness

4% Use of leftovers

7% Improper cleaning

7% Cross contamination

11% Contaminated raw food

12% Inadequate reheating

16% Improper hot storage

16% Inadequate cooking

20% Infected persons touching food

21% Time between preparing and serving

40% Improper cooling of foods

slide64

A Multiplication Quiz

Bacteria numbers can double

every 20 minutes!

How many bacteria will result if 1 BACTERIUM is left at room temperature for 7 hours?

slide65

Answer: 2,097,152!

Refrigerate perishable foods quickly!

slide66

How To Be Cool – Part 1

  • Cool food in shallow containers
  • Food should be no more than 2” deep
  • Stir periodically speeds up cooling process
slide67

How to Be Cool – Part 2

  • It’s OK to refrigerate foods while they’re still warm
  • Leave container cover open until food has cooled
pass food through the danger zone as few times as possible
Pass Food through the Danger Zoneas Few Times as Possible
  • Hot foods should be cooled and reheated only one time
  • Cold foods should be kept on ice or in a cooler
  • Discard any remaining food that has been at room temperature for over an hour
pass food quickly through the danger zone
Thaw foods in the refrigerator

Cook foods to correct temperature

Reheat foods to at least 165oF

Reheat gravies, sauces and soups to a boil

Cool foods from 140o to 40oF quickly

Pass Food Quickly Through the Danger Zone
keep cut fruits veggies cold
Keep Cut Fruits & Veggies Cold
  • Cut fruits and vegetables can grow bacteria
  • Keep cut fruits and vegetables cold
  • Do not leave out of refrigeration more than 2 hours
slide71

The THAW LAW

  • Plan ahead to defrost foods
  • The best way to thaw foods is in the refrigerator
slide72

Recommended Refrigerator & Freezer Temperatures

  • Set refrigerator at 33º to 40º F
  • Set freezer at0º F or less
slide74

Monitor Temperatures inRefrigerators & Freezers

  • Place thermometer in easy to read locations inside the front of the refrigerator or freezer
  • Check temperature weekly
slide75

Section 4 –Food Safety: Putting It all Together

  • Summary & Closing
  • What’s wrong with this picture
  • Why food safety is important
  • Activities
  • What’s wrong with this picture
  • Post-test
  • Evaluation
slide81

CreditsCenters for Disease ControlUniversity of California Cooperative Extension Agriculture and Natural ResourcesMake it Safe. Serve it Safe, UC ANRAlice Henneman, University of Nebraska Cooperative ExtensionUnited States Department of AgricultureUnited States Food & Drug Administration

make it safe core issues team
Make It Safe Core Issues Team

Specialists:

Christine Bruhn - cmbruhn@ucdavis.edu

Linda Harris – ljharris@ucdavis.edu

Advisors:

Mary L. Blackburn – mlblackburn@ucdavis.edu

Maria Giovanni – megiovanni@ucdavis.edu

Anna Martin – acmartin@ucdavis.edu

Diane L. Metz – dlmetz@ucdavis.edu

Shirley Peterson – sspeterson@ucdavis.edu

Patti Wooten Swanson – pwswanson@ucdavis.edu

September 2006