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Warm Up #33

Warm Up #33

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Warm Up #33

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  1. Warm Up #33 • Which countries settled portions of the Americas?

  2. Settling in America

  3. Native American Civilizations • Native American Civilizations • Mayan • Yucatan Peninsula • Aztec • Mexico/Central America • Tenochtitlan—Capital • Incas • Andes Mountains/S. America • Cusco – Capital https://www.classzone.com/net_explorations/U4/U4_article1.cfm

  4. Conquistadors- Spanish conquerors • Even though outnumbered, the Spanish had several advantages which lead them to conquer the Native Americans • Guns/Cannons vs spears/arrows • Metal armor • Horses—Native American never • seen before • Disease—Native Americans • lacked the immunity-resistance • Small pox, influenza, measles • Reasons for conquering Native Americans • Conversion to Christianity • Gold/Silver deposits Conquistadors https://world-civ-2012-13.wikispaces.com/Spanish+Conquests+in+the+Americas+(2A) http://floridahistory.com/inset44.html

  5. Cortes/Pizzaro • Hernan Cortes • 1519 lands in Central America • 1521 Cortes defeats • Moctezuna and the Aztecs • Demolished Tenochtitlan, later • built Mexico City on the ruins • Francisco Pizarro • Arrived in Peru in 1532 • 1533 Pizzaro defeats Atahualpa • and the Incas • Pizzaro creates Lima, Peru • Mayans • 900s Mayan civilization collapse • Do not know why • Spanish claim the former Mayan • lands upon arrival in 1500s http://www.enchantedlearning.com/explorers/gifs/Pizarromap.GIF http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/df/Hernan_Fernando_Cortes.jpg http://thehistoryjunkie.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/pizarroroute.gif http://www.westmeade.net/Library/EuropeanExplorers/HernandoCortesRoute.gif

  6. Spanish Empire • Four Provinces of Spain • New Spain • New Castille • New Granada • Rio de la Plata • Each province was ruled by a • viceroy- representative who • ruled in the King’s name • The Council of the Indies in • Spain oversaw the viceroys • to make sure they didn’t abuse • their power. http://peter.mackenzie.org/history/hist424.htm

  7. Warm up #34 Which crop was an major export for Spanish in the Caribbean/S. America (and still is today)…(hint molasses)

  8. Spanish Culture • Spain culture comes to America • Catholic Missionaries • Convert Native Americans • Church officials served as • royal officials • Franciscans, Jesuits impact • Built churches • Baptisms • Introduced new clothing • Spanish language • Controlling trade • Silver and Gold • Sugar Cane • Rum, Molasses • Only could export raw materials to Spain and buy Spanish products http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/96/Sugar_Cane.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0c/Mission_Espada_Chapel1.JPG http://cnx.org/content/m38217/latest/soldiers.png

  9. Slavery in Spanish provinces • Encomienda- Conquistadors granted to • use Native Americans as forced labor • under brutal conditions • Native American were called peons- • forced labor workers • Many were killed because of the conditions or because they • refuse to work • Africans were brought in because • the Native Americans population • rapidly decreased • Thought Africans could handle the working conditions better Spanish/Slavery http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-DdivQUdBpT8/T4CEWE3n8NI/AAAAAAAAAbk/xcwhEAVxLYk/s1600/encomienda.jpg http://ehistory.weebly.com/uploads/5/0/5/7/5057459/encomienda_system.gif

  10. Culture blending/Society • Spain to Native Americans • Introduced horses, food, dances • Native American to Spain • canoes, food, architecture • Social classes (from top to bottom) • Peninsulares • People born in Spain • Gov’t and church officials • Creoles • American born descendants • of Spanish settlers • Owned plantations • Mestizos • Native American and European • descent • Mulattoes • European and African descent • Africans Spanish Classes http://education-portal.com/cimages/multimages/16/encomiendas-diagram.jpg

  11. Portugal • Portugal • Based on Treaty of Tordesillas, • Portugal claimed Brazil • Export Brazilwood (dye) • Plantation/cattle raising • Imported slaves • Pirates/Smuggling • As more valuable goods were shipped • back Europe, more pirates appeared, • especially around the Caribbean • Privateers- Pirates who operated • with approval of governments • Smuggling increased as other European • countries wanted the riches of America http://www.aurorasilk.com/natural_dyes/assets/brazilwood_colors_800.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Edward_Teach_Commonly_Call%27d_Black_Beard_(bw).jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Brazilwood_tree_in_Vit%C3%B3ria,_ES,_Brazil.jpg

  12. French Claims • North American Settlement • French claims • Eastern Canada (New France) • 1534 Jacques Cartier explored • coastline of Canada and found • St. Lawrence River • Great Lakes to Mississippi to • Louisiana • Main exports • Furs, Trapping, Fishing (cod) • Officials were sent over to oversee • economic activity and collect taxes http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Cartier_First_Voyage_Map_1.png http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6a/Jacques_Cartier.jpg

  13. British Claims • British claims • 1497 John Cabot • Newfoundland • 1607 Jamestown, Va • Settlers died of starvation • and disease • 1620 Pilgrims-English Protestants • who rejected the Church of • England settle in Plymouth, MA • Mayflower Compact- set guidelines • for governing their colony • 13 Colonies 1600-1700s • Colonies were formed for various • reasons • Royal Governors oversaw the colony • Parliament control trade http://dmshistory8.weebly.com/uploads/8/5/5/4/8554984/820764_orig.jpg?384 http://emsexplorers.pbworks.com/f/1193756666/nlc000847-v6.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6e/The_First_Thanksgiving_cph.3g04961.jpg http://www.wlcsd.org/imageGallery/JStearns9295/Explorers/Cabot,%20John/john-cabot.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a8/Plymouth_Colony_map.svg/609px-Plymouth_Colony_map.svg.png

  14. WARM UP 36 • 1. How did the British win the rights to the land east of the Mississippi • River? • Who holds claims to Florida and SW area of the North America (AZ, • NM, TX, CA) in early 1800s?

  15. http://www.ccis.edu/courses/HIST359mtmcinneshin1/week05/New_Folder/MapAngloFrenchNAMERexpansion.jpghttp://www.ccis.edu/courses/HIST359mtmcinneshin1/week05/New_Folder/MapAngloFrenchNAMERexpansion.jpg

  16. French & Indian War • Competition for colonies • Dutch, English, French, Spanish and • Native Americans all fought for land • War in Colonies • 1754-1763 French and Indian War/Pontiac’s War • British vs French and Native Americans • 1763 Treaty of Paris • France gave Canada and all land • east of the Mississippi River to British • France did keep the Caribbean islands http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Pontiac's_war.png http://britishbattles.homestead.com/files/america/namerica/Indian_Wars/battlemap_of_the_french_and_indian_war.jpg

  17. Three-legged trade network • Also known as Triangular Trade • First leg (Europe to Africa) • guns, cloth, cash • Second Leg or Middle Passage (Africa • to America • Part where slaves were transported • to the Americas • “Floating coffins” • ½ died on the way • Disease (dysentery, smallpox) • Third Leg (America to Europe) • Cotton, molasses, sugar, rum, furs • Impact • By 1500s, 2,000 slaves/year brought over • 1780s-80,000/ year (Peak) • Mid 1800s total 11 million brought over Atlantic Slave Trade http://www.awesomestories.com/images/user/9384385025.jpg http://www.slaverysite.com/Body/slave_trade_1650-1860_b%20-%20www.slaveryinamerica.org.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ca/Triangle_trade2.png

  18. Effects of Americas • Columbian Exchange (named after • Columbus) is the exchange of • goods between America and Europe/ • Africa • Exchange of new Food and Animals • Population migration and explosion • Spreading of disease • Commercial revolution • Inflation- Rise in prices • Capitalism growth—privately • owned businesses • Entrepreneurs– people who take • financial risk to make a profit, • expanded into oversea adventures • Guilds were bypassed • “Putting-Out” system– Each • part of creating a product was • done separately by separate • businesses Columbian Exchange

  19. http://apworldhistory2012-2013.weebly.com/uploads/9/9/9/6/9996001/5885243_orig.jpghttp://apworldhistory2012-2013.weebly.com/uploads/9/9/9/6/9996001/5885243_orig.jpg

  20. Mercantilism Mercantilism arises Export more than import to build gold and silver supplies/wealth Tariffs- taxes on imported goods http://rushcanvas.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/58828777/Mercantilism.JPG