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Organizations (collectives purposely constructed) that are formal Ronald “Mc…who”?
Formal Organizations Make up Social structure • Normative (service, charitable organizations) • Coercive (prisons) • Utilitarian (corporations)
Offices, Vertical official functions • Authoritarian Structure: • a hierarchy of unequal positions • Specialized division of labor • Everything in writing • Structure based on legal-rational authority
Functions like • McDonaldization the intent is to meet specific goals with the most efficiency, predictability, control through technology, quantity over qauality, calculation • Bureaucracies perpetuate differences in “Life Chances” "HAMBURGER-IZING THE WORLD"
Weber worried about the over rationalization of society “iron cage” • But he missed some things… • the dysfunctions that come with “Bounded rationality” • Not all organization members are rational.
Alienating (powerless) • Trained incapacity – blind adherence • Red tape • Catch 22 • Knowledge at the lower ranks “Whoa... I think the boss doesn’t like you!”
Leads to Whyte’s “Organization Man” – or bureaucratic personality a person whose life is controlled by organization “cheerful robots”
Bureaucracy dysfunctions…. • Goal conflicts: • (units conflict with organizational goals or infighting occurs) • Goal Displacement: • (lose sight of original goals and sometimes those in power start to manipulate the organization “oligarchy”
Parkinson’s Law: • work expands to fill time
Peter Principle: • promoted beyond competence – some excel but many do less than their job description • Leave no trace – oral communication to keep secrets “What do I need to do to have promotion written all over me”
Today’s Bureaucracies are more diverse that Weber considered but….. • Gendered Organizations persist…. • Perpetuates inequalities “visible display” means more pressure, more stress but does not equal authority • “Glass Ceiling” exists where advancement can be seen but not accessible. Justified by “unique” positions – • Glass escalator – men in traditionally female occupations
Women represent more than half of professional positions in the United States • •Women hold 18 percent of all Fortune 500 board seats and 17 percent of Fortune 100 companies • • Make up less than 4 percent Fortune 500 CEOs at only 18 • “Double Pane glass ceiling” for women executives – especially in relation to global companies
Outsourcing – transfer of activities from one organization in exchange for money. • Offshore outsourcing - India, Phillapines call centers • 1989 – U.S. spent between $9 – $12 Billion • 2008 – U.S. spent $55 billion • Much military spending was outsourced – Blackwater (Xe) and Halliburton (KBR)
Gender and Race • Schwartz argues • “Mommy Tracks” encourage lowered aspirations and satisfaction with less • Leads to decreased advancement • Because men have not been allowed to have “Daddy Tracks” • Today in place but hard for men to access • Feagin argues entry does not equal integration for minorities • Best explained by social networks, lack of mentors
Class differences • Dual Labor Market • Middle and Upper classes more likely to work in industries with higher wages, more job security • Poor and Working classes more likely to work in industries with lower wages, less job security, fewer opportunities to advance
Bureaucracies have an informal side • Day to day interactions • Work Cultures arise • Subcultures develop when people try to humanize an impersonal organization. • The informal culture can become exclusionary. • Hawthorne Effect • e.g. “Chislers”, “Squealers”, “Rate Busters”
Traditional views • Assume people are lazy • Informal networks should be controlled • e.g., locking doors at chicken plant, monitoring e-mails, videotaping stockrooms
Human relation views • If you assume traditional view, you’ll get resistance • Informal networks should be nurtured • Let workers determine organizational efficiency – this oils the wheels and provide intrinsic motivation