Chapter 13: Cultural Context: Renaissance, Reformation, and the Rise of Modern Science. Renaissance humanism (1350-1650).
PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 13: Cultural Context: Renaissance, Reformation, and the Rise of Modern Science' - ami
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Renaissance humanism is predominantly Christian. It marks a turn from a general societal asceticism to a general societal sense of celebration over the richness of the human spirit, the fruits of culture, the beauty of creation
Human nature is created in the image of God: human beings are spiritual creatures in a physical world, and the goal of life is re-unification with the divine/God in the spiritual realm
Life is God-centered: we can be both in the world and of the world—as long as the of defers to God and does not betray either God or our nature as a being created in His image
Science is inspired by God and carried out in the service of God: science reads the book that God wrote
Modern humanism: The cultural and intellectual viewpoint that affirms the dignity and worth of human beings, in respect of the power of reason, to know the truths of nature and to determine, express, and achieve what is good for human beings
Human beings, as rational animals, are created in the image of God—but reason is emphasized
Reason may be given by God, but it is in our hands to use wisely for extra-religious purposes
Life is largely human-centered: Life in the public realm is increasingly governed by reason; life in the private realm is increasingly governed faith.
A strong repudiation of the prevailing Christian asceticism and the themes of lowliness of man and the ultimate smallness and worthlessness of reason
Science is inspired by God (for some) and continues to read the book that God wrote, but increasingly the physical laws of nature are seen to exist on their own without the metaphysical support of God
Modern Secular humanism: Humanism in its post Bacon, Hobbes, Copernican, Galilean, Cartesian, Newtonian, Darwinian form: entirely Human centered universe
Man’s nature is a rational animal, and both our rationality and animality can be accounted for by natural-scientific reasons. The thesis of man’s nature being created by and in the image of God is superfluous.
The universe and everything in it is a mechanistic-materialistic phenomenon
A thoroughly human-centered world
A total repudiation of God in science: God is superfluous to scientific explanation—nothing but romanticism and nostalgia
A strong separation of Church and State in the political-public realm
Post-structuralism: there is no deep structure (only difference) to reality, meaning, language, society, history (Heidegger-Derrida-Foucault-Lyotard etc): endless contingency
Material Systems-theory: human beings do not exist per se; they are knots in a biospherical web of cosmic-planetary-subatomic-atomic-chemical-molecular-biologic-ecological relations of material formations and forces
Cultural Systems-theory: human beings do not exist per se; they are functionaries of cultural functions: cultural conventions (power-relations) determine entities-meanings (Foucault): humans are power-knowledge complexes that are “written” by a power-knowledge culture complex (individuality is an ideological formation imposed and composed by the social-historical-linguistic-institutional power grid of which it is a political-economic functionary)
Ontological “systems” theory: human being is grounded in the relational-event of Being (Heidegger)
Columbus (1492) & all-water routes to the India around Cape of Good Hope
The rise of art, artistry, and literature: Michelangelo, Raphael
The birth of a new “ideal” individual: the Renaissance man: a person that is worldly, intellectual, well-educated, scientifically minded, innovative, yet creative, autonomous (self-creative), daring, defiant: the birth of individualism—a swash buckler! Leonardo De Vinci
Martin Luther (1483-1546): Augustinian monk; Ninety-Five Theses (1517); excommunicated (1520)
Protestant Reformation: 1520
The shift in viewpoint: the “Priesthood of Believers”: each individual has direct access to God and does not need the medium of the Roman Catholic Church and its mediaries (priests) to mediate one’s relationship to God.
This undermined Roman Catholic Church tradition and authority: it takes salvation out of the hands of the Church and puts it in the hands of each person: The Church is seen as an unnecessary meddling middle-man (distribution link) who needs to be cut out of the spiritual economic process.
This contributed to the rise and cultivation of individualism: Be self-directed! Auto-nomy: self-governed: not spiritually governed (mediated) by a third party: Hobbes-Locke-Hegel-Marx
Political significance: Life as a political individual requires a neutral third party to mediate personal-political difference; but the spiritual life of the individual does not: Spiritual life is a face to face encounter with God: Kierkegaard; spiritual libertarianism (the spiritual life of the individual is higher than the political life of the individual)
The beginnings of the separation of Church and State
The fall of Feudalism with the expansion of mercantile economies
The birth and rise of mercantilism & the shift from barter economies to monetary exchange: the rise of modern capital, capitalism, and capitalists:
The rise of free (non-state controlled) ownership of the means of production, of Banks, Banking, and Bankers
The rise of modern social-economic classes (primarily the middle class with its many strata & functions)
The rise of a separation between the economic and the religious: the public and the private: religion is an individualistic and private affair—but the private should pervade the public/economic realm via a religious “work ethic”
Galileo’s distinction between primary and secondary qualities
Primary qualities are objective to reason, can be quantified mathematically, and can be scientifically studied in terms of extension, size, shape, motion, mass, number and so on: the breakfast muffin is
Secondary qualities are subjective, and are experientially perceivable in terms of color, texture, odor, sound: the breakfast muffin is delicately scrumptious on the bottom, crisply munchuous on top.
Tertiary qualities are subjective evaluative judgments (assessment of value) of both primary and secondary qualities: a size and taste of the scrumptious-munchuous breakfast muffin is good
The over throw of teleological explanations
The scientific focus of study is placed on material and efficient causes for what and how things are the way they are in both nature and human affairs—and teleological questions of why they are such and such are either indefinitely postponed or even discarded as unanswerable
The birth of Modern philosophy is largely premised on two motivations
A break from the past: from Platonism, Aristotelianism, Medieval theology, the dominance of the Church tradition and authority: none of these offered certainty, and all could be proven to be deeply mistaken
The need to explain philosophically how the new science worked, and to understand and to substantiate its findings