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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION. THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION. CREATION OF A NEW WORLDVIEW. Questioning of old knowledge & assumptions. Gradual replacement of religious & superstition presumptions. Gradual rise of science & reason. THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION. NEW DIRECTIONS IN ASTRONOMY & PHYSICS.

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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

CREATION OF A NEW WORLDVIEW

  • Questioning of old knowledge & assumptions
  • Gradual replacement of religious & superstition presumptions
  • Gradual rise of science & reason
slide3

THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

NEW DIRECTIONS IN ASTRONOMY & PHYSICS

  • PTOLEMY: Geocentricism
  • NICOLAUS COPERNICUS (1473-1543): Heliocentrisim
  • TYCHO BRAHE (1546-1601): More accurate position of planets
  • JOHANNES KEPLER, (1571-1630): Elliptical planetary movement
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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

NEW DIRECTIONS IN ASTRONOMY & PHYSICS

  • GALILEO GALILEI(1564-1642)
  • Constructed first telescope
  • Described motion of bodies on earth
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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

NEW DIRECTIONS IN ASTRONOMY & PHYSICS

  • ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727)
  • Universal Gravitation: combined laws of planetary & earth motion
  • Numerous practical applications
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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

DISCOVERIES IN OTHER SCIENCES

  • Botany: new medical applications
  • Anatomy: better understand of how human body worked
  • Microscope invented
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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT

  • FRANCIS BACON (1561-1626)
  • Inductive reasoning: working from particular to general conclusions
  • Empiricism & scientific method
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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

PHILOSOPHICAL THOUGHT

  • RENÉ DESCARTES (1596-1650)
  • Geometry: any algebraic formula could be plotted as curve in space
  • Deductive Reasoning: starting with general assumptions & working downward
  • Cartesian Dualism: division of reality into “thinking substance” & “extended substance”
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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

POLITICAL THOUGHT

  • THOMAS HOBBES (1588-1679)
  • Negative, mechanistic view of human nature
  • Strong sovereign necessary to control conflicting desires

Hobbe’s Leviathan

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THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION

POLITICAL THOUGHT

  • JOHN LOCKE (1632-1704)
  • TABULA RASA: humans born with blank slate
  • Government & public enter contract