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Enhancing Energy Production in C.reinhardtii Using a Double Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Christina George and Julie Paone
Knowledge Base • Autotrophic organism that produces hydrogen in sulfur deprived anaerobic conditions C.reinahrdtii http://www.sciencedaily.com/images/2009/03/090324171556-large.jpg
Isoamylase • Important enzyme for starch accumulation which is important for hydrogen production (Posewitz, 2005). http://www.mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk/genomes/date/1bf2.gif
Knowledge BaseAny organic material can create electricity • Two step process • Removal of electrons from organic matter (oxidation) • Giving the electrons to something that will accept them (reduction)(oxygen) • The electrons flow to cathode and join with protons • Voltage and current Logan, 2009 http://www.engr.psu.edu/ce/enve/logan/publications/2009-Logan-NatRevMicrobiol.pdf
Electrogenesis • Process of converting food into energy • Respiratory enzymes ATP • Terminal electron acceptor (TEA) • Exogenously http://www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v4/n7/fig_tab/nrmicro1442_F2.html
Construction PEM Anode (carbon rod) Solution (C.reinhardtii and Algae Medium) Solution (Potassium Ferricyanide) Plastic Bottle (Carolina) Cathode (carbon rod) Efficiency Cost Materials
Purpose Hypothesis • The purpose of this study is to determine whether a MFC can increase energy production in C.reinhardtii. • The null hypothesis states that there will be no significant energy production in the C.reinhardtii while in the MFC . • The alternate hypothesis states that an MFC will significantly increase the energy production in C.reinhardtii.
Literature Review • Rosenbaum, Miriam (2005) ‘Utilizing the Green Alga C.reinhardtii for Microbial Electricity Generation” • Direct electricity generation from microbial photosynthetic activity • Oxidative depletion of hydrogen, photosynthetically produced by C.reinahrdtii under sulfur deprived conditions, by polymer coated electro catalytic electrodes
Literature Review • Logan, Bruce E. (2006) “Using Algae and other Biomass for Hydrogen Production in a Modified Microbial Fuel Cell” • A small voltage was applied (.25 V) to the algae, which generated pure hydrogen gas at the cathode
Enhancing Energy Production in C. reinhardtii Using a Double Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Purpose: to determine whether a MFC can increase energy production in C.reinhardtii. Control Groups: The Algae growth medium, Temperature, and light intensity Independent Variable: Growth of C.reinhardtii and hydrogen produced (original concentration 700mL) Dependent Variable: Carbon dioxide levels, pH levels .5 hours of anaerobic atmospheric conditions Control group of algae will be grown in the airlift bioreactor (700 ml) with no anaerobic or sulfur deprived conditions 3 hours of anaerobic atmospheric conditions 6 hours of anaerobic atmospheric conditions Algae will be grown in designated duration of anaerobic time in an anaerobic container, and will be fertilized with sulfur deprived growth medium (100 mL). • Double chamber MFC will be constructed -Carbon dioxide concentration measured using a Pasco GLX Xplorer -pH levels measured using pH paper -growth of C.reinhardtii measured using a Spectrophotometer -The hydrogen gas produced will be measured using an H2Scan hydrogen detector. -A fluorometer will be used to measure the photosynthetic rate. All data will statistically analyzed by SPSS, by an ANOVA followed by a Sheffe Post Hoc Test. Data will then be put in line graphs.
Enhancing Energy Production in C. reinhardtii Using a Double Chamber Microbial Fuel Cell Purpose: to determine whether an MFC can increase energy production in C.reinhardtii. Control: Algae will be grown in the Cyto-Airlift bioreactor. Variable: Algae will be grown in an MFC at ………concentration/amount Variable: Algae will be grown in an MFC at ………concentration/amount Procedure: an MFC will be constructed
Do ability • Experiment was done last year • Most materials are familiar • Background in culturing • Data collection was previously done • Materials are accessible • C.reinhardtii: Can be grown in the lab as done in previous years • Anaerobic container can be purchased • A hydrogen sensor will be difficult to find at a low cost http://www.engr.psu.edu/ce/enve/logan/bioenergy/mfc_make_cell.htm
Work Cited • Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore. "Carbon Dioxide Transformed Into Methanol." ScienceDaily 17 April 2009. 23 April 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/04/090416102247.htm>. • **“Algae Could One Day Be Major Hydrogen Fuel Source.” Science Daily. April 2, 2008. • American Chemical Society. "'Ice That Burns' May Yield Clean, Sustainable Bridge To Global Energy Future." ScienceDaily 24 March 2009. 23 April 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/03/090323143858.htm>. • Basque Research. "Obtaining Bio-gas From Food Industry Waste." ScienceDaily 31 March 2009. 7 May 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/03/090331101105.htm>. • **Chisti, Yusuf. “Biodiesel from Microalgae.” Biotechnology Advances. Vol. 25, Pgs. 294-306. February 13, 2007. • CNRS. "Renewable Energies: The Promise Of Organic Solar Cells." ScienceDaily 10 April 2009. 7 May 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/04/090409151444.htm>. • DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory. "New Hope For Biomass Fuels: Breaking The Ties That Bind." ScienceDaily 29 April 2009. 3 May 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/04/090422121904.htm>. • **Fouchard, Swanny. "Autotrophic and Mixotrophic Hydrogen Photoproduction in Sulfur Deprived C.Reinhardtii." Applied and Enviornmental Microbiology 71 (2005): 6199-6205. 16 May 2008 <http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1265920&blobtype=pdf> • **Kim Pyo, Jun; et al. “Enhancing hydrogen production by controlling light intensity in sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonasreinhardtii culture.” International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. Vol.31, Pgs. 1585-1590., September 2006. • **Najafpour, G. "Continuous Hydrogen Production via Fermentation of Synthesis Gas." Petroleum and Coal 45 (2003): 154-158. 12 May 2008 <http://www.vurup.sk/pc/vol45_2003/issue3-4/pdf/14.pdf>. • National Institute of Standards and Technology. "Discovery Of An Unexpected Boost For Solar Water-splitting Cells." ScienceDaily 26 April 2009. 3 May 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/04/090423105853.htm>. • Natural Environment Research Council. "Plants Absorb More Carbon Dioxide Under Polluted Hazy Skies." ScienceDaily 23 April 2009. 23 April 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/04/090422132829.htm>. • Weizmann Institute of Science. "New Way To Split Water Into Hydrogen And Oxygen Developed." ScienceDaily 8 April 2009. 23 April 2009 <http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2009/04/090406102555.htm>. • Choi, Youngjin, Eunkyoung Jung, Hyunjoo Park, Seunho Jung, Sunghyun Kim, Effect of Initial Carbon Sources on the Performance of a Microbial Fuel Cell Containing Environmental Microorganism Micrococcus luteus. Bull. Korean Chem. Soc, Vol. 28, No. 9, 2007 Pp. 1591-1594 • Bennetto, H. P., Electricity generation by microorganisms, National Centre for Biotechnology Education. Vol. 1, No.4, 1990 Pp. 163-168 • Liu, Hong, Grot, Stephen, Logan, Bruce E., Electrochemically Assisted Microbial Production of Hydrogen from Acetate, Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 39, 2005 Pp. 4317-4320 • Logan, Bruce E. Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells. Nature Reviews, Microbiology, Vol. 7, May 2009 Pp. 375-381 • Logan, Bruce E., CassandroMurano, Keith Scott, Neil D. Gray, Ian M. Head, Electricity Generation from Cystenine in a Microbial Fuel Cell, Water Research, 2005 Pp. 942-952 • Logan, B.E., Microbial Fuel Cells, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hobeken, New Jersey, 2008. • Macdonald, Averil and Berry, Martyn, Science through Hydrogen: Clean Energy for the Future,Heliocentrisenergiesysteme, 2004. Pp. 74, 80 • Melis, Anastasios, Green Alga Hydrogen production: progress, challenges and prospects. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. • Xing, Defeng, Zuo, Yi, Cheng, Shaoan, Regan, John M., Logan, Bruce E. Electricity Generation by Rhodopseudomonaspalustris DX-1, Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 42, No. 11, 2008 Pp. 4146-4145