Growth and Crisis in Colonial Society 1720-1765 APUSH – Mr. Buttell Ch. 4
Conquest by the cradle In 1700 the colonies had 20 English to 1 American. By 1775 this had shrunk to 3 to 1 Average age in 1775 was 16 90% of people lived in rural areas, and 4 major urban areas were Philadelphia, NYC, Boston, and Charleston Why does a population boom have political implications?
Beginnings of a Melting pot Germans fleeing religious persecution, economic oppression head to PA The Scot-Irish people also settled in PA, make up 7% of pop. Great frontiersmen who brought distillery skills with them. Neither group is loyal to the British crown, by mid 18th century, the Scot-Irish are scattered along the “great wagon road”
“The Melting Pot” The 13 Colonies represented the biggest diversity in the world. The largest non-English group was Africans Middle Colonies held the most diversity, especially PA, NE colonies the least 18 of the 56 signers of the DOI were non-English, 8 not born in the colonies
Colonial Society Why does the Europeanization of society worry people? Who are the poor? Farms shrank as land became more scarce. 1750 Boston had a large portion of homeless poor Indentured servants free of contract added to this pop. 50,000 jailbirds from England are dumped in the colonies Almshouses created in the 1730s, still number of poor is small relative to England • Merchant princes started to show up from riches earned of military supplies in conflicts. (Profiteers or savvy businessmen?) • Mid-Century, richest 10% of Boston and Philly owned 2/3 of taxable wealth in their cities.
The Professionals Clergy, though less influential, still considered the most prestigious title Physicians were poorly trained, smallpox hit 1 of 5 people 1765, first medical school (Univ. of Penn) established, yet disease still persisted Lawyers are deemed unnecessary at first, yet eventually find a place with a booming population
Workday America Farming wheat becomes hot new crop Middle Colonies are the bread basket Cod becomes main export to Catholic Europe Triangular Trade, particularly with Middle and NE Colonies, provides wealth and slaves Manufacturing still second behind farming 1770, 1/3 of British merchant marine was American built
The Molasses Act, 1733 Colonists need more outlets Trade continues, but only through England first (Navigation Acts) Import tax on molasses from non-English colonies. (9 pence per gallon) Colonists ignore the act and smuggle and bribe Salutary Neglect????
Transportation Horse power Sail power Populations clustered along rivers Taverns also arose along rivers and in cities. Play a vital role in social life. Sam Adams used his breweries for political appeal and early ways of passing on information • Scarce money and resources = terrible road system • Roads do not connect major cities until the 1700s • Traveling the short distance from Boston to Philly could take a week
Dominant Denominations • Anglicans and Congregationalists = only tax supported churches in 1775 • Anglicans made up most of GA, NC, SC, VA, MD and a part of NY • Anglican clergy reputation was so poor that William and Mary College was founded • How will religion play a role in the upcoming rebellion? • Sedition flowed from the pulpit early on. Neo-Trinity = Presbyterianism, Congregationalism and rebellion
Great Awakening Started in the 1730-40s over the colonies J. Edwards “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” “Salvation only through dependence on God’s grace.” G. Whitefield brings evangelicalism by touring the country with emotional sermons
Great Awakening “Old Lights” “New Lights” Baptists and Presbyterians make room for this approach to preaching Defend the role of revitalizing religion in the colonies Establish new places of higher learning to train = Princeton, Rutgers, Brown, and Dartmouth • Orthodox clergy • Deeply skeptical of the revivalists • Divided the Congregationalists from the Presbyterians • Tended to be more of the merchant and middle class
Lasting Effects of the Awakening Greatly increased the number and competitiveness of churches 1st spontaneous mass movement of the American people Broke down sectional boundaries as well as denominational lines
Schools & colleges • Farm labor drained much of a youth’s time and energy • NE education flourished, middle and southern colonies beginning to see schools. • Emphasis placed on religion and classical languages • College education most highly regarded. B. Franklin helps found U Penn, 1st non-religious school.
Pioneer Presses Ben Franklin establishes the first privately funded library in Philly By 1776, 50 public libraries 40 colonial newspapers = airing problems with the crown and opposition to British control John Zenger assailed the corrupt royal Gov. of NY, charged with libel, found not guilty since statements were true This case serves as turning point to eventual Freedom of Press
Game of politics 1775, 8 colonies Royal, 3 Proprietors (MD, DE, PA) and 2 charter (self-governing, RI and CT) Most states have 2 chamber legislature Self-taxation through representation was American privilege that was cherished Colonial assemblies paid for governors salaries which led to tensions (power of the purse) 1775, not yet a true democracy but far more advanced compared to England and Europe in press, assembly, speech and rep govt.
The Duel for North America (1608 to 1763) “The French and Indian War” Or “The Seven Year’s War”
Was 1763 a "turning point" in British-colonial relationships???
New Source of Conflict - France Fur trade draws French immigrants/S de Champlain Fort Louisbourg, Cape Breton Island, Mouth of St. Lawrence River Center of French Empire = Quebec City, & Montreal West, Detroit and Sault Sainte Marie South, plantations along the Mississippi, New Orleans = Creole The Iroquois Confederacy (Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oneida = Western NY French assimilated much better with the native people, than the English Ohio Valley becomes potential battleground
Tensions Build European conflicts between England, France & Spain spill over to the colonies Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 transferred ownership of Nova Scotia (Acadia) and Newfoundland to England King George’s War 1744-48 led to the colonists taking Fort Louisbourg, only to have to return it to French (Bitter) English start building forts in Ohio Valley, French get mad Iroquois choose side of English Summer of 1754, VA sends militia led by Washington into Ohio Valley Fort Necessity (WEAK)
1754 The First Clash The Ohio Valley British French Fort Necessity Fort Duquesne* George Washington * Delaware & Shawnee Indians
1754 Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin representatives from New England, NY, MD, PA • Albany Congress failed Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French.
1755 Br. Decides to Eliminate Fr. Presence in No. Amer. Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) • Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia. • Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces. Only Br. Success expelled French from Louisiana. CAJUNS (Acadians)
British-American Colonial Tensions Methods ofFighting: • Indian-style guerilla tactics. • March in formation or bayonet charge. MilitaryOrganization: • Col. militias served under own captains. • Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. MilitaryDiscipline: • No mil. deference or protocols observed. • Drills & tough discipline. Finances: • Resistance to rising taxes. • Colonists should pay for their own defense. Demeanor: • Casual, non-professionals. • Prima Donna Br. officers with servants & tea settings.
1757 William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister • Moral was down and colonists frustrated. He understood colonial concerns. • He offered them a compromise: - col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. Also returned military recruitment to the assemblies. Sent large troops RESULTS? Colonial morale increased by 1758.
1758-1761 The Tide Turns for England *By 1761, Spain has become an ally of France.
Siege of Quebec Pitt sends two generals, Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe to the battle. Capture Fort Louisbourg in July 1758 Few months later Fort Duquesne falls September 13, 1759, General Wolfe seizes Quebec in surprise attack both leaders are killed A year later, Montreal falls to Amherst Peace comes with King George III, and Pitt resigns due to health The Treaty of Paris is signed 1763
1763 Treaty of Paris France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most of her empire in India, and claims to lands east of the Mississippi River. Spain -->got all French lands west of the Mississippi River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to England. England -->got all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and commercial dominance in India.
Effects of the War on Britain? 1. It increased her colonial empire in the Americas. 2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt. 3. Britain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelings. Therefore, England felt that amajor reorganization of her American Empire was necessary!
Effects of the War on the American Colonials 1.It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
The Aftermath: Tensions Along the Frontier 1763 Pontiac’s Rebellion Fort Detroit British “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt.
BACKLASH! British Proclamation Line of 1763. Colonials Paxton Boys (PA)
The Paxton Boys • Armed march into Philly against the Quakers too tolerant acceptance of Natives (1764) • Later led the Regulator Movement in NC. An insurrection against eastern domination of colony’s affairs. • A young Andrew Jackson will join this group of men. • Remember these roots of Jackson’s, they tell us much of his character later.