The Colonial Society The Enlightenment and the Great Awakening
Calvinism and the Puritans • John Calvin- Theologian • Predestination • Key Beliefs • Men are ALL sinners • Only a few are Saved
Success is a sign of Grace • Hard work is a virtue • Righteous behavior is a Calvinist virtue • The “saved” are “living saints” • The “Elect” • You can never be sure you are Saved.
British Calvinism • The Separatists • Church of England is corrupt • Want separation from it • Intolerant of other religions.
Mayflower Pilgrims • Plymouth Colony 1620 • Believe what you want but not here • Colony Struggled
Puritans • Want to “purify” the Church of England • Establish Massachusetts Bay Colony 1630 • Perfect society of a “Living Saint” • A “Theocracy.” John Winthrope • Religious conformity enforced by law • The Godly Commonwealth • Had a “Covenant” with God
Lasting impact of the Puritans • The Work Ethic • Material success a sign of virtue • Strict public morality • Intolerance • The Town meeting • Public Education • Harvard College 1636 • Value of Contracts • Belief in National Mission • Idea of a “Calling” • Superiority
Reaction to Puritans • Religious Liberty • “Separation of Church and State” • Roger Williams • Anne Hutchinson • The First Amendment to the Constitution 1791
The Protestant Work Ethic • Americans work hard. • The basis of our success…
Utopian Perfection • Puritans want to build a perfect society • This is a theme in American History • Belief in Progress
Immigrants from Europe • Brought European customs and traditions • But soon a new culture emerged: the American Colonial culture. • Shaped by the New Environment
Colonial Society • Rapid population growth from • Immigration • Amazing birth rate • By 1776 3 million American colonials • 2/3rd born in the New World
Area of Settlement • Mostly along the Atlantic seaboard • Most Lived as farmers • Line of exploration had reached Kentucky • The Western Frontier
Social Classes • By 1775 distance classes had emerged • Top class: Plantation owners, and wealthy merchants • Next: Small farmers, craftsmen and shopkeepers • Bottom: Indentured servants and slaves
Social Mobility • The ability to move from one class to the next • Class structure in Europe was Rigid • Colonial American it was easy to rise
Living Conditions • Family was the focal point. • Strict discipline • Life expectancy 40 in the South, 70 in New England • Middle Class produced own clothes and homes • Upper class imported clothes • Recreation
Arts and Literature • Life was hard • Little time for arts • Noted American artists: • Charles Peale • John S. Copley • Gilbert Stuart
Self Portrait Charles Peale Thomas Jefferson George Washington Henry Knox
Gilbert Stuart Self Portrait Unfinished Washington
The Enlightenment • Begins in England with Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica 1687 • Mechanical view of the universe, governed by Natural Law. • Reason and the Scientific Method to find the truth.
Rationalism • In America Ben Franklin, James Madison, and Thomas Jefferson, son of the Enlightenment • Deism: The popular religion • God as master clock maker • Progress is possible.
John Locke • “Social Contract” • “Treatise on Civil Government” • Natural Rights vs. Divine right of Kings • The Right of Revolution • Man is a product of his environment
Enlightenment in Europe • American intellectuals influence by Voltaire • Ben Franklin • Inventor • Scientist • Statesman • Publisher • Thinker • Philosopher • Rationalism undercuts Calvinist emotion.
Religion in Colonial America • As religious diversity increases so does religious tolerance • Congregationalist church becomes the established church in New England • Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware practice separation of church and state • The South establishes the Anglican Church
The Great Awakening • By 1730s and 40s religion had lost its passion • Congregational church adopts the half way covenant • Church membership declines • Ministers preach a softer religion influence by the Enlightenment
New Light Ministers • Jonathan Edwards Northampton, Mass • “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” • 1734 George Whitefield • Returns Emotion to religion • New Light Colleges • Dartmouth • Rutgers • Princeton
Colonial Education • Massachusetts Act of 1647 • Towns with 50 families must establish a school • Towns with 100 families must set up Latin Grammar School • First Colleges: • Harvard • William • Mary • Yale
New England Confederation founded in 1643. 1. Purpose: defense against foes (e.g. Indians, French, and Dutch). 2. Significance: First milestone on road to colonial unity. 3. 1st era of "salutary neglect": Eng. Civil War in 1640s left colonies to fend for themselves. Dominion of New England . 1685, Lords of Trade created Dominion of New England Goal to unite all colonies
Salem Witch Trials 1692 • 20 people executed • Starts: Salem girls, a slave and two women are charged with witchcraft • Then charged anyone they disliked • 150 are charged. Some confess • Anyone who protested was accused
Mercantilism • Economic Theory • Colonies exist to benefit the “Mother Country” • Trade is controlled • Must use British merchant ships • Must ship goods to England first • Cannot trade outside of the empire
More… • Colonies supply raw materials • Become markets for manufactured goods. • Navigation Act passed by parliament • But not enforced • Policy of Salutary Neglect
THAT IS IT! Done…finished…complete….end.…through…