development of colonial society 1720 1765 n.
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Development of Colonial Society 1720-1765

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Development of Colonial Society 1720-1765

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  1. Development of Colonial Society1720-1765

  2. Old World Background • Society in Europe—stratified • Rural • Aristocracy • Landed gentry • Peasants • Urban • Prosperous merchants • Shopkeepers and artisans • Unskilled labor

  3. New England Freehold Society • Farm families: Women in the household economy • Husband the head of the household • Wife as helpmate • Motherhood • Limitations for women • Farm property: Inheritance • Land ownership was possible • Indentured servitude of children • Children of the wealthy • Marriage practices • Responsibility of the father

  4. The Freehold Society in Crisis • Population increases contributed to challenges • Decreased size of farms shaped family dynamics • Additional land was necessary • Shift in farm production • Household mode of production

  5. The Middle Colonies: New York • Economic growth and social inequality • Fertile lands and longer growing season • Feudal system develops in New York • Tenancy

  6. The Middle Colonies: New Jersey and Pennsylvania • Started with relative equality • Influx of poor people shifts to more class divisions • Slaves or Scots-Irish worked the land • By 1760 half of white men owned no land

  7. Middle Colonies: Cultural Diversity • Ethnically and religiously diverse • Preservation of cultural identity • Quakers in Pennsylvania • German settlers • Scots-Irish

  8. Middle Colonies: Religious Diversity • Germans criticized the separation of church and state in PA • Quakers “enforced” morality through self-discipline • Friction between the Germans and Quakers resulted

  9. European Enlightenment • Emphasized reason and the laws of nature • John Locke—origins of political authority • Benjamin Franklin—turned to Deism • Increased secularism among the colonists

  10. Elements of the Great Awakening • Religious reaction to the enlightenment • Enthusiasm—contrast with the stoic Anglican church • Itinerant preachers • Democratic elements to the movement • First inter-colonial event

  11. Content of the Message • Salvation through faith and prayer • Importance of individual understanding of the Bible • Emphasized personal piety • Leading preachers: George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards

  12. Impact of the Great Awakening • Conflict between “old light” and “new light” ministers was heightened • It undermined support of traditional churches • Established institutions to train a new supply of preachers—Princeton, Rutgers, Brown and Columbia • Challenged the Anglican church in the south • Increased the numbers of new sects

  13. Conflict in North America and Europe • 1n 1750: Only 80,000 settlers occupied New France • France and England had been fighting for supremacy in Europe and North America • First three wars—indecisive • In 1754 fighting began again • France controlled important water ways

  14. Albany Conference • Seven colonies represented • Negotiations with Iroquois • Plan of Union (1754) • “Grand Council” • Royal veto • Never passed

  15. French and Indian War (1754-1763) • Began in North America • 1756—“Seven Years War” • Virginians moved into the Ohio Valley • French countered by building forts • Virginia sent out a militia • French won some early battles • William Pitt—recommits to the war (1757) • 1759—“The Year of Victory” • Indians at the end of the war

  16. Treaty of Paris • England is the major colonial power • England got all French territory to the Mississippi as well as Spanish Florida • French territory west of the Mississippi became part of New Spain • England’s dominance in India began

  17. Results of the French and Indian War • Colonies • Favorable military experience • Colonial unity • Threat removed • Less dependent • Britain’s beliefs • Colonies had not fully cooperated • Had gained from victory • Should help pay

  18. Results continued • George Grenville—strict enforcement • Proclamation of 1763 • Navigation Laws • Writs of Assistance • Maintain a peace-time army • Colonial resistance • British don’t understand the reaction

  19. On the Frontier • Colonists resented lack of protection against Indians • Pennsylvania—Paxton Boys • The Carolinas—the Regulators