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Apocalyptic Literature

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  1. Background: Jewish Apocalyptic Definition: a genre of revelatory literature with a narrative framework, in which a revelation is mediated by an otherworldly being to a human recipient, disclosing a transcendent reality which is both temporal, insofar as it envisages eschatological salvation, and spatial insofar as it involves another, supernatural world. Apocalyptic Literature

  2. APOCALYPTIC Definition made Simple The narrative of a vision, granted to a seer, through a mediator, concerning end times. Apocalyptic Literature

  3. Ezekiel ch. 1.1-25 the four living creatures ch. 1.26-28 the enthroned figure ch. 2.1-3.4 eating the scroll ch. 3.5-15 stubborness of the people Apocalyptic Literature

  4. Daniel 7-12 four beasts heavenly court the Ram and the Goat Daniel's prayer, Gabriel visions of war secret message Apocalyptic Literature

  5. Historical Background to Revelation Nero persecutes Christians in Rome (54-68) Laodician earthquake (61) Destruction of the Temple (70) Seige of Masada (72) Eruption of Vesuvius (79) Empire wide persecutions by Domitian (81-96) The Book of Revelation

  6. What it is not symbolic literal revelatory prophetic a message of hope a message of doom The Book of Revelation

  7. Small group the letters to the 7 churches The Book of Revelation

  8. The Seven Churches of Revelation Ephesus - population of a quarter million, had one of 7 wonders - the great temple of Diana, Paul had warned it against false preachers and of persecution ( the presence of the temple of Diana meant an active trade in silver statues, as her worship was depleted by conversion, the silversmiths feared a loss of revenue) Smyrna - ancient commercial center, original temple of goddess Roma, had a temple to Emperor Tiberius, the martyr Polycarp was bishop there Pergamum - capital of province of Asia, large temple to Zeus with continual animal sacrifices being burned, heresy of Nicolaitans Thyatira - commercial center with many trade guilds Sardis - industrial center, had been home of King Croesus, had been destroyed by earthquake in 17 AD, references to vigilance are appropriate in the letter addressed to it as it had twice been defeated due to its own negligence Philadelphia - demolished by same earthquake as Sardis in 17 AD, rebuilt with imperial subsidy; had a synagogue strongly hostile to Christians Laodicea- rich commercial center, struck by earthquake in 61 AD, famous for black wool; the letter to this church accuses them of being tepid in their faith because of their wealth Each of these churches can also be seen to represent various dangers to faith: loss of love, fear of suffering, doctrinal compromise, moral compromise, spiritual death, inconstancy, tepidness. (Metzger, p. 46) The Book of Revelation

  9. Ch . 4-5 images: open door God enthroned 24 elders 4 living creatures Lamb with 7 horns and 7 eyes scroll with 7 seals (Ezek 1.4-14, Is. 6.1-8) The Book of Revelation

  10. The Book of Revelation

  11. The Four Horsemen “God does not approve of famine and death and hell, but they are what must follow if people persist in opposing God's will.” (Metzger 58) The Book of Revelation

  12. Chapter 8 The 7 Trumpets The 7 angels: from Jewish tradition (Tobit, Enoch) : Raphael, Uriel, Raguel, Michael, Sariel, Gabriel, Remiel natural disasters had been prevalent – the earthquake which destroyed Laodicea in 61 the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 (destroying Pompeii) fractional destruction is symbolic of divine mercy, awaiting the repentance of the remnant The Book of Revelation

  13. The 10 Plagues of Exodus Blood Frogs Gnats Flies Boils Pestilence Locusts Hail Darkness Death of the 1st born The Book of Revelation

  14. Allegorical Imagery in Chapter 11 witnesses Sodom Egypt 3 1/2 days the Ark in the Temple The Book of Revelation

  15. Seven visions the woman, the dragon, heavenly battle the 1st beast (the Roman empire) the 2nd beast, 666 the Lamb and the 144,000 “virgins” 3 angels harvesting the earth heavenly liturgy The Book of Revelation

  16. the 7 bowls, poured out on those who have refused to repent Armageddon Babylon, the Whore - (Rome will Fall!) the triumph of God through Christ's Word Gog and Magog, in Ezekiel and in Rabbinic tradition – the enemies of God The Book of Revelation

  17. 16.17 “It is done.” 21.6 “They are accomplished.” the Feast of the Lamb The Book of Revelation