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Chapter 21. Progressive Reforms 1877-1920. 21.1 The Progressive Movement. 1. Political Machines – powerful organizations linked to political parties. They controlled local government in many cities.

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chapter 21

Chapter 21

Progressive Reforms

1877-1920

21 1 the progressive movement
21.1 The Progressive Movement
  • 1. Political Machines – powerful organizations linked to political parties. They controlled local government in many cities.
  • 2. Political Boss – a machine representative within a political district that controlled jobs and services.
21 1 cont
21.1 cont….
  • 3. Patronage – government jobs or favors that were given out to political allies and friends.
  • 4. Civil Service – non-elected government workers.
  • 5. Trusts – a combination of firms or corporations formed by a legal agreement, especially to reduce competition.
21 1 cont1
21.1 cont….
  • 6. The Sherman Antitrust Act was the first federal law to control trusts and monopolies.
  • 7. The Interstate Commerce Commission was created to supervise the railroad industry and, later, the trucking industry.
21 1 cont2
21.1 cont…..
  • 8. Muckrakers were journalists who “raked” (brought to light) the “muck” (dirt and corruption) underlying society.
  • 9. A primary election allows voters to choose their party’s candidates.
  • 10. The initiative allowed citizens to place a measure or issue on the ballot in a state election.
slide6
21.1….
  • 11. The referendum gave voters the opportunity to accept or reject measures that the state legislature enacted.
  • 12. The recall allowed voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from office.
  • 13. The Seventeenth Amendment to the constitution provides for the direct election of senators.
21 2 women and progressives
21.2 Women and Progressives
  • 1. The National Association of Colored Women established homes for orphans, founded hospitals, and worked for woman suffrage. Their motto was “Lifting As We Climb.”
  • 2. The National Woman Suffrage Association called for a constitutional amendment that would allow women to vote.
  • 3. In 1890, Wyoming was the first state to give women the right to vote.
21 2 cont
21.2 cont….
  • 4. The Women’s Trade Union League encouraged working women to form women’s labor unions.
  • 5. The Eighteenth Amendment was known as the prohibition amendment. It made it illegal to make , transport, or sell alcohol in the U.S. It was ratified in 1919.
21 3 progressive presidents
21.3 Progressive Presidents
  • 1. President Theodore Roosevelt was known as a trustbuster. Someone who fought to break up trusts. One way he did this was by using the Sherman Antitrust Act.
  • 2. Arbitration is the settling of labor disputes by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider.
21 3 cont
21.3 cont….
  • 3. Theodore Roosevelt ran for the presidency in 1904, promising people a “square deal”. This meant fair and equal treatment for all.
  • 4. Conservation means the protection and preservation of natural resources. Taking care of the environment. Theodore Roosevelt has been called America’s first environmental president.
21 3 cont1
21.3 cont…..
  • 5. “I feel as strong as a bull moose!” (Theodore Roosevelt) The Progressive Party was known as the Bull Moose Party.
21 4 excluded from reform
21.4 Excluded From Reform
  • 1. Discrimination – unequal treatment because of race, religion, ethnic background, or place of birth.
  • 2. In 1896 the Supreme Court legalized segregation in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson.
21 4 cont
21.4 cont….
  • 3. The Ku Klux Klan was a terrorists organization who wanted to restore white, protestant America. They lashed out against Catholics, Jews, and immigrants as well as African Americans.
  • 4. Booker T. Washington, who had been born a slave, founded the Tuskegee Institute in 1881.
21 4 cont1
21.4 cont…
  • 5. Booker T. Washington founded the National Negro Business League to promote business development among African Americans.
  • 6. Ida B. Wells was the editor of an African American newspaper in Memphis Tennessee who was forced to leave town after she published the names of people who were involved in lynchings.