PHASE ONE: AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1688 - 1763. British successfully win “The War for Empire” but fail to win the peace in the Americas……. PHASE TWO: AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1963 - 1775. From boycotts to bullets….. crossroads
1688 - 1763
British successfully win “The War for Empire” but fail to win the peace in the Americas……
1963 - 1775
1776 - 1783
Seven Years War
The Enlightenment caused a shift in the cultural and social attitudes of the people, bringing in some new and radical ideas.
The doctrine of republicanism asserts a system of a government that is elected people
“Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” developed as motto of this era, which forms the cornerstone of the U.S. Constitution today. Since the colonies had very few individual rights, they declared certain fundamental rights that they deemed “inalienable.”
The colonies had no say in the formation of the government, and had no representation in the law-making process. Consequently, they were attracted to the idea of democracy
The ideas of religious tolerance came from the rule of King George II, who was a staunch Catholic and did not allow freedom of religion to Protestants in New England. Deism, there is no interference by a deity.
"Christians" throughout the colonies, many churches and people seemed to practice a form of cold religion.
Q: Enlightenment compatibility with Religion?
“evangelists” spreading the good news of religious freedom and fervor in wave after wave through America.
George Whitefield woke them up. Jonathon Edwards went to war for their souls.
2nd 100 Years War !
series of military conflicts between England and France 1689-1815
Rivalries in Europe always spill over into the Colonies…….
(1) There were more settlers living in the British colonies than in New France.
(2) Since the British colonies were concentrated along the Atlantic coast, they were easier to defend.
(3) Most of the English settlers were willing to fight hard to save their land, homes, and families.
1. The British gained control over the area west of the 13 British Colonies all the way to the Mississippi River.
2. The French agreed to give up any colonies in North America, including all of Canada.
3. Since Spain had helped the French, the Spanish were also forced to give up Florida. But the Spanish still held their territory west of the Mississippi River and in Central and South America
4. France allowed to keep Sugar Producing Islands in the Caribbean and New Orleans
The English did ultimately come to dominate the colonial outposts, but at a cost so staggering that the resulting debt nearly destroyed the English government
Parliament was desperate to attain two objectives:
1) tax the colonies to recover monies expended on the battle over North America.
2) restore the profitability of the East India Company in an effort to recover monies spent on the battle over India.
the three groups of victors—British, Indian, American—emerged from the conflict with very different, and ultimately incompatible, understandings of what they had won
The British - they had secured a glorious future; in vanquishing the French, they had conclusively established their claim to the North American continent, ensuring that their empire would unfold peacefully and profitably into the foreseeable future.
Indians- believed that they had secured political and territorial independence through their service in the war; by the war's end, they had won from the British recognition of their rights to control the interior of North America.
American colonists- by defeating the French and hostile French-aligned Indians, they had secured their western frontier; they had won .
The proposal called for a general government that will be administered by a President General appointed and fully supported by the Crown.
Under this plan each colonial legislature would elect delegates to an American continental assembly presided over by a royal governor
Formation of a permanent federation of colonies
The plan was flatly rejected
by both sides!!
James Otis (lawyer Mass. ) Vice Admiralty of Courts / prosecuted smugglers in colonies based on 1760s Navigation Acts / resigned 1761 to fight it!
Ohio Valley tribes were expected to turn their loyalty to a new European monarch, George III of Britain, they were outraged!
British traders lacked the reputation for fairness in dealing with the Indians that had been the hallmark of the French
English dominance in North America meant the construction of new forts and the movement of new settlers into traditional Indian lands.
British arrogance was well-known among the Indians.