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PHASE ONE: AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1688 - 1763. British successfully win “The War for Empire” but fail to win the peace in the Americas……. PHASE TWO: AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1963 - 1775. From boycotts to bullets….. crossroads

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PHASE ONE: AMERICAN REVOLUTION

1688 - 1763

British successfully win “The War for Empire” but fail to win the peace in the Americas……

slide2

PHASE TWO: AMERICAN REVOLUTION

1963 - 1775

  • From boycotts to bullets….. crossroads
  • Colonists evolve into Patriots in response to British policies and actions
  • British colonists ponder new ideas and arguments vs. British mercantilism
  • British Constitutional principles mutate into colonial arguments for separation from the mother country
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PHASE THREE: AMERICAN REVOLUTION

1776 - 1783

  • 1st and 2nd Continental Congress lead colonists into first successful colonial war against empire….
  • Red Coats against the Patriots
  • Defining moments in a struggle against empire; battles that defined a generation
  • Articles of Confederation is wartime
  • Government and a template for United States stability
  • Constitution of the United States of America
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PHASE TWO

Seven Years War

PHASE THREE

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Main Ideas of the American Enlightenment

The Enlightenment caused a shift in the cultural and social attitudes of the people, bringing in some new and radical ideas.

Republicanism:

The doctrine of republicanism asserts a system of a government that is elected people

Individual Liberty:

“Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” developed as motto of this era, which forms the cornerstone of the U.S. Constitution today. Since the colonies had very few individual rights, they declared certain fundamental rights that they deemed “inalienable.”

Democracy:

The colonies had no say in the formation of the government, and had no representation in the law-making process. Consequently, they were attracted to the idea of democracy

Religious Tolerance:

The ideas of religious tolerance came from the rule of King George II, who was a staunch Catholic and did not allow freedom of religion to Protestants in New England. Deism, there is no interference by a deity.

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Great Awakening 1740

"Christians" throughout the colonies, many churches and people seemed to practice a form of cold religion.

Q: Enlightenment compatibility with Religion?

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“evangelists” spreading the good news of religious freedom and fervor in wave after wave through America.

George Whitefield woke them up. Jonathon Edwards went to war for their souls.

  • work-study program that allowed him to finance his education by being a servant to the upperclassmen (Oxford University)
  • Philadelphia and New York, this spiritual awakening was to explode when he made a trip to New England / evangelist
  • message of individual responsibility to God

George Whitefield

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Mindset from which the ideology of the revolution grew.

  • Preacher in Boston from Congregationalist Church
  • Message giant leap in the dark when these colonists would find it “necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with the establishment
  • Message personal religious experience with a sense of spiritual independence and liberty. They began to feel a freedom to pursue a “personal relationship” with their God apart from the religious establishment

Jonathon Edwards

slide9
The war was the product of a clash between the French and English over colonial territory and wealth. In North America, the war can also be seen as a product of the local rivalry between British and French colonists.

Mercantilism

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Building a network of overseas colonies

  • Forbidding colonies to trade with other nations / restrict domestic consumption
  • Banning the export of gold and silver, even for payments
  • Forbidding trade to be carried in foreign ships
  • Export taxes / import taxes
  • Control colonial custom houses
  • Limiting wages
  • Maximizing the use of domestic resources
1756 1763 the seven years war
1756-1763(The Seven Years War)
  • King William's War - Scandinavia
  • Queen Anne’s War - Spain
  • King George’s War - Canada, Trade Routes
  • The French and Indian War

2nd 100 Years War !

series of military conflicts between England and France 1689-1815

Rivalries in Europe always spill over into the Colonies…….

seven years war causes
Seven Years’ War: Causes
  • After the explorations of the 15th, 16th, and 17th Centuries, the European powers protected their interests by building a series of fortified trading posts throughout the maritime regions
  • Boundaries in the new colonies were disputed
  • Commercial competition ultimately generated violence
    • In 1746 French forces seized the English trading post in India
    • In the Caribbean English pirates attacked Spanish vessels and French and English forces fought over the sugar islands
  • The violence culminated in the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763)
seven years war causes1
Seven Years’ War: Causes
  • A global war
    • In Europe- Britain and Prussia fought against France, Austria, and Russia
    • In India- British and French allied with local rulers and fought each other
    • In the Caribbean,- the Spanish and French fought the British
    • In North America- the Seven Years’ War merged with the on-going French and Indian War (1754-1763) which pitted the British and French against each other
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Tensions between the British and French in America had been getting worse for some time, as each side wanted to gain more land. In the 1740s, both England and France traded for furs with the Native Americans in the Ohio Country.
  • By the 1750s, English colonists, especially the investors in the Ohio Company, also hoped to convert the wilderness into good farmland.
  • Each side tried to keep the other out of the Ohio Country. In the early 1750s, French soldiers captured several English trading posts and built Fort Duquesne (now called Pittsburgh) to defend their territory from English incursions.
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The British had three major advantages:

(1) There were more settlers living in the British colonies than in New France.

(2) Since the British colonies were concentrated along the Atlantic coast, they were easier to defend.

(3) Most of the English settlers were willing to fight hard to save their land, homes, and families.

.

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The tide turned for the British in 1758-- British are too strong!

  • British began adapting their war strategies to fit the territory and landscape of the American frontier.
  • The French were also abandoned by many of their Indian allies / British victories enticed Indian allies
  • Exhausted by years of battle, outnumbered and outgunned by the British, the French collapsed during the years 1758-59, climaxing with a massive defeat at Quebec in September 1759.
william pitt 1708 1778
William Pitt1708 -- 1778
  • Pitt was Prime Minister during the French and Indian War. When the British retook Fort Duquesne, they named it Fort Pitt in honor of their Prime Minister. Pitt was responsible for financing the British war effort, largely by taxing the British colonies (including those in America).
slide23

Treaty of Paris 1763

1. The British gained control over the area west of the 13 British Colonies all the way to the Mississippi River.

2. The French agreed to give up any colonies in North America, including all of Canada.

3. Since Spain had helped the French, the Spanish were also forced to give up Florida. But the Spanish still held their territory west of the Mississippi River and in Central and South America

4. France allowed to keep Sugar Producing Islands in the Caribbean and New Orleans

lasting effects
Lasting effects
  • Ended French influence in North America.
  • England gained massive amounts of land and vastly strengthened its hold on the continent.
  • It hurt relationships between the English and Native Americans
  • Though the war seemed to strengthen England's hold on the colonies, the effects of the “French and Indian War” played a major role in the worsening relationship between England and its colonies that eventually led into the Revolutionary War.
slide27

The English did ultimately come to dominate the colonial outposts, but at a cost so staggering that the resulting debt nearly destroyed the English government

Parliament was desperate to attain two objectives:

1) tax the colonies to recover monies expended on the battle over North America.

2) restore the profitability of the East India Company in an effort to recover monies spent on the battle over India.

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the three groups of victors—British, Indian, American—emerged from the conflict with very different, and ultimately incompatible, understandings of what they had won

The British - they had secured a glorious future; in vanquishing the French, they had conclusively established their claim to the North American continent, ensuring that their empire would unfold peacefully and profitably into the foreseeable future.

Indians- believed that they had secured political and territorial independence through their service in the war; by the war's end, they had won from the British recognition of their rights to control the interior of North America.

American colonists- by defeating the French and hostile French-aligned Indians, they had secured their western frontier; they had won .

albany plan of union 1754
Albany Plan of Union 1754
  • Aware of the hard times that war could put on the colonies, English officials suggested a "union between ye Royal, Proprietary & Charter Governments."
  • Some colonial leaders agreed and in June 1754 delegates from most of the northern colonies and representatives from the Six Iroquois Nations met in Albany, New York. They decided on a "plan of union" drafted by Benjamin Franklin.
slide30

The proposal called for a general government that will be administered by a President General appointed and fully supported by the Crown.

Under this plan each colonial legislature would elect delegates to an American continental assembly presided over by a royal governor

Formation of a permanent federation of colonies

The plan was flatly rejected

by both sides!!

slide31
Issues that could derail national development - finance / taxes / dealing with the Indian tribes / control of trade / and defense.
  • King George realized that, if adopted, the plan could create a very powerful government that His Majesty's Government might not be able to control.
  • The plan was rejected by the Crown and by all the legislatures of the colonies.
slide32

writs of assistance 1760-61

  • authorized by the Parliament, enabled customs officials to enter business and homes in the hope of finding vaguely defined contraband (to locate and seize smuggled goods)
  • they did not require evidence of wrongdoing or judicial approval
  • colonists argued that the writs violated English constitutional protections against search and seizure of private and business property.

James Otis (lawyer Mass. ) Vice Admiralty of Courts / prosecuted smugglers in colonies based on 1760s Navigation Acts / resigned 1761 to fight it!

slide33

Pontiac`s Rebellion 1763 -66

Ohio Valley tribes were expected to turn their loyalty to a new European monarch, George III of Britain, they were outraged!

British traders lacked the reputation for fairness in dealing with the Indians that had been the hallmark of the French

English dominance in North America meant the construction of new forts and the movement of new settlers into traditional Indian lands.

British arrogance was well-known among the Indians.

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Chief Pontiac

  • Ottawa Tribe
  • Oratorical skills and a supporter of the French in the recent war
  • Gathered 18 tribes attach British forts with early success capturing all except Fort Pitt, Fort Detroit, and Fort Niagara
  • Rebellion failed- French supplies limited/ weakened French alliance/ Indian cooperation
slide38

Proclamation 1763

  • prohibited the North American colonists from establishing or maintaining settlements west of an imaginary line running down the crest of the Appalachian Mountains.
  • acknowledged that Indians owned the lands on which they were then residing and white settlers in the area were to be removed.
  • provision was made to allow specially licensed individuals to operate fur trading in the area.