A presentation created by Joe Laufer Burlington County and The American Revolution Battle of Trenton – December, 1776 Battle of Monmouth – June, 1778
AMERICAN REVOLUTION • 1775-1783 • Begins with the Battles of Lexington and Concord near Boston in April, 1775 • British surrender at Yorktown in 1781 • Treaty of Paris ends the war in 1783
1736-1809 The Thomas Paine House became the home of the fiery pamphleteer in 1783. Paine's "Common Sense;' published in early 1776, began "These are the times that try men's souls.“ His words and spirit heartened many a patriot in the early days of the Revolution.
Statue of Thomas Paine Prince St. at the waterfront Bordentown, NJ
Thomas Paine Statue • Location: At the corner of Prince St. and Park St. close to the Delaware River embankment. • Significance - The Bordentown Historical Society was responsible for initiating and constructing only the third public monument to Paine in the U.S. This statue was unveiled and dedicated with much fanfare and half the national colonial war re-creation forces on June 7, 1997 (the weekend of the 188th anniversary of Paine's death). The Inscription on the base reads: "Thomas Paine - 1737-1809 - Father of the American Revolution". The statue was sculpted by Lawrence Holofcener.
More on Thomas Paine… • The statue features Paine standing with one foot resting up on a rock bearing the inscription "We have in our power to begin the world over again," from his book Common Sense, which inspired the colonists to war on behalf of democratic rights and independence, and not just a tax rebellion. Paine is depicted holding a copy of Common Sense in one hand and gesturing forward with the other. At his feet are his other great works, The Age of Reason, Rights of Man and American Crisis, as well as his musket. The statue creates the first memorial to Common Sense, which exemplifies the American Revolution. The memorial depicts Paine as both author and soldier. Paine wrote Common Sense in the fall of 1775, in support of representative government, democracy and equality for all. He is credited in some circles with ghost-authoring the Declaration of Independence. This transformed America's mission from a rebellion against taxation into a struggle for independence and self-determination. Paine donated the proceeds from Common Sense to the Revolution. In 1776-77, Paine fought in the army as an Aide-de-Camp for General Greene. In 1777 he was appointed Chairman to the Committee on Foreign Affairs. • Another aspect of Paine's legacy is that he is credited with devising the cantilevered bridge.
Farnsworth at Park St. intersection, Bordentown Each building at this historic corner figures significantly into our area's Revolutionary War history. The Francis Hopkinson House was the home of one of New Jersey's five signers of the Declaration of Independence. Occupied by the enemy on several occasions, it was spared the torch by a scholarly Hessian officer who was impressed with Hopkinson's library. Facing the Hopkinson House, across Farnsworth, stands the Patience Lovell Wright House, home of the noted American sculptor. Carried to England and the court of George III by her talent, Patience Wright reportedly gathered information helpful to the American Cause during the Revolution.
The Borden House Next to the Wright House, across Park St., stands the home of Col. Joseph Borden, or rather the house built upon the foundations of Borden's home which was burned by the British in May 1778. Across Farnsworth from Borden House stood Hoagland's Tavern, a center for the 2,000 Hessians and Scotsmen billeted in Bordentown under Col. Kurt von Donop in December 1776. Had these troops not been lured southward just prior to Washington's attack on Trenton, they might easily have reached the 1,500 Hessians quartered in Trenton and turned Washington's victory there into a devastating defeat. Site of Hogland Tavern
A marker at the near left corner of the intersection of Beverly Rancocas Rd. and Kennedy Way states that at the pinnacle of the rise stood, in Revolutionary times, a mansion called Franklin Park, the private residence of William Franklin, the illegitimate son of Benjamin, and the last Royal Governor of New Jersey. As much a loyalist as his father a patriot, Franklin was imprisoned in Burlington in 1776 and chose exile to England when American independence was won.
City of Burlington 206 High Street At this place stood the little print shop in which Benjamin Franklin printed New Jersey currency in 1728, and from which Isaac Collins issued the State's first newspaper "The New Jersey Gazette" on 5 December 1777. Temple B’nai Israel, 212 High St., the building to the left, built in 1916, is one of the oldest synagogues in South Jersey.
Originally settled in 1677, Burlington served, along with Perth Amboy, as New Jersey's provincial capital from 1703 to 1776. As the seat of the king's government Burlington boasted, among other things, a fine governor's mansion and a well appointed stone barracks. Because of these ties to England, the city was the home of many ardent Tories including the mayor, John Lawrence, who lived at (what is now) 459 High St. Lawrence, who entertained Hessian officers in this house, was later imprisoned for his loyalty to the crown. Old St. Mary's Church (corner Broad & Wood) had been chartered by Queen Anne in 1703. Its rector during the Revolution, Dr. Jonathan Odell, was so outspoken a Tory that he was once forced into hiding to save himself from an angry band of Burlington patriots.
The Revell House, built in 1685, is the oldest identified structure in Burlington County. Traditionally, it was from this house that an old woman gave gingerbread to a hungry Benjamin Franklin on his first trek to Philadelphia.
The Blue Anchor Inn Corner of High and Broad Streets Burlington The Blue Anchor Tavern was established in 1750 and was one of the most popular gathering places in South Jersey. British and American troops used it during the war. On July 3, 1776, The Declaration of Independence was read from the steps of the Blue Anchor Inn to the residents of the City of Burlington. It was later known as the Belden House and the Metropolitan Inn. It was recently rehabilitated and has retail space on the lower level and 16 affordable housing apartments on the upper levels. It is an example of “adaptave reuse” to preserve the historic architecture of this building.
Capture of Hessians at Trenton, December 26th, 1776 John Trumbull - 1794 The Passage of the Delaware Thomas Sully – 1819 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Washington Crossing the Delaware George Caleb Bingham - 1871
Washington Crossing The Delaware, December 1776 Museum at Washington Crossing State Park, N.J. The Swan Historical Foundation in 2000 commissioned Lloyd Garrison, an artist from Red Bank, NJ to prepare a historically correct rendering of the crossing (on a ferry, not a Durham boat). Washington is seated, and his generals (Sullivan and Greene) are with him. The image is accurate as historical research and current knowledge of this event permits.
Crosswicks Quaker Meeting • The meeting house was built in 1773. It served as the command post, on 29 December 1776, of the American Col. Silas Newcomb prior to his troops' engagement in the second Battle of Trenton.
Dunk’s Ferry • Near this point, George Washington planned a second crossing of the Delaware to occur simultaneously with his own, north of Trenton. 1,500 men, under General Cadwalader were ordered to cross here, at Duncan Williamson's, "Dunk's" Ferry and attack the Hessians in Burlington County on Christmas night 1776. Finding the river impassable and the bank insurmountable, however, Cadwalader was forced to return his troops to the Pennsylvania shore-thus precluding a major confrontation in Burlington County.
DUNK’S FERRY • Location: At the end of Manor Road on the Delaware River bank across from the gazebo. • Significance - The monument was dedicated on September 20, 1975 by the City of Beverly Bicentennial Committee. It reads: Near this site one of our country's first ferries was operated from circa 1695 to late 19th C. During Revolutionary Times it was used by Washington and his troops. This area was called "Dunks Ferry" before Beverly was founded.
Black Horse (Columbus) • Columbus, then called Black Horse, was the southernmost knot - in the string of posts the British had flung across New Jersey in the wake of Washington's 1776 retreat to Pennsylvania. Along with others stationed at Princeton, Trenton, Bordentown, and Rising Sun, the Hessians at Black Horse assumed that the Americans were settled in across the Delaware for the winter and prepared themselves for a quiet occupation of Burlington County.
Black Horse to Lower Springfield At his command post in Bordentown, Count von Donop had received reports on 19 December 1776 that an American force of nearly 3,000 men was gathering at Mount Holly and preparing to march north. The reports acquired new validity when, on 21 December, a Hessian outpost stationed at Petticoat Bridge was attacked by an American detachment of some 400 men. The Hessians, many of them wounded, fled back to Black Horse following the skirmish convinced that a much larger American force was on the way. On 22 December, von Donop came to Black Horse to assess the situation. Fearing that a surprise attack by the Americans would trap his troops against the river at Bordentown, he ordered his forces stationed there and at points south, to march on Mount Holly. In reality, the Americans at Mt. Holly under Col. Samuel Griffin numbered only 600. Hidden amidst the trees south of Petticoat Bridge, however, they appeared to be many more when they opened fire on the advancing Hessian troops on 23 December. Following their initial barrage, the Americans retreated for Mt. Holly and safety, south of the Rancocas.
Hessian surgeons ordered their wounded carried inside following the skirmish at Petticoat Bridge. Copany Meeting Lower or “Old” Springfield Friends Jobstown-Jacksonville Rd. (Rte. 670)
Mount Holly Revolutionary Cannon • Location: On the front lawn (south side) of the Olde Court House at 120 High Street, Mt. Holly. • Significance - Despite the fact that the plaque on the cannon states that it was manufactured in Mt. Holly, it is a baseless legend. It is certain that the Mount Holly Iron Works was not equipped to cast anything as large as a cannon. Nevertheless, the Mount Holly Iron Works contributed significantly to the war effort. The canon was mounted in its present place by Washington Camp No. 71, P.O.S. of A. of Mount Holly in 1915. For many years it had been buried at the northeast corner of the grist mill, serving as a fender to keep wagon wheels away from the foundation. It is positively known that two cannon were captured in Mt. Holly by the British and afterwards abandoned. • No positive proof can be produced that the Court House cannon saw action with the American forces fighting in Mount Holly a few days before the battle of Trenton, but the affirmative evidence agrees perfectly with the known facts. The Americans had two light guns, and two light guns were captured by the Hessians. They were abandoned later, and it is certain that they were first disabled. Two cannon were found, probably in the vicinity of the mill, where the fighting was intense. One has been lost, the other, fortunately preserved, was deliberately damaged so it could not be used as a weapon. The logical conclusion identifies the Court House cannon as one of the two captured and abandoned here by Ewald on December 26, 1776. As the last grist mill was built soon after the Revolution, it is not a fantastic assumption that the workmen found the cannon where it had been left by the Hessians, and that it was then placed in the position it occupied before its removal to the Court House lawn.
Mount Holly Revolutionary War Cannon Located on the grounds of the Historic Mt. Holly Courthouse
Mount Holly Quaker Meeting House - 1716 - Current building: 1775 Restored in 1999 with the help of a major Historical Preservation grant through the New Jersey Historic Trust and other funding. Location: 81 High St., corner of Garden St.
Mount Holly figured prominently in the American Revolution. British Troops Were quartered here on several occasions. At least one skirmish between American and British Troops is recorded. Stephen Girard, the famous financier and merchant lived here during the British occupation of Philadelphia
Pictured is the "Mount" to which Count von Donop ordered his troops and guns on 24 December 1776 and from which the Hessians opened fire on the town and the Americans, across the Rancocas on Iron Works Hill. Following a daylong barrage, the enemy invaded Mount Holly to find the Americans again on the run, this time along the road to Moorestown. Satisfied with their "victory" and more than ready to enjoy their Christmas, the Hessians were quick to locate the village taverns. Their celebration was finally interrupted on the morning of 26 December by the dull thunder of distant guns-the Battle of Trenton was being fought, and lost, without them.
Iron Works Hill St. Andrew’s Cemetery, Pine St.
Battle of Iron Works Hill Monument • Location: In St. Andrew's Cemetery on Pine Street, Mt. Holly. The monument can be seen from Pine Street. There is an historical marker along the fence, and off in the background you will see the monument and flag. Direct access is possible by entering the cemetery grounds through the pillared gate. • Significance - Mount Holly had a role in the famous Battle of Trenton. Just before Christmas Eve, 1776, about 2000 Hessians and Scots under General vonDonop chased some New Jersey militia down Jacksonville Road from Bordentown into Mount Holly and made a mess of the place. The town was sorely used during the next few days by these mercenaries. But the joke was on them -- while they were busy dawdling in Mount Holly, George Washington's army was completing its crucial victory over the remaining Hessian forces at the Battle of Trenton - turing the tide of the American Revolution. • The text on the plaque affixed to the stone monument reads: "Here on December 23, 1776 was fought the Battle of Ironworks Hill. This diversionary tactic aided Washington to capture Trenton."
The Thomas Budd House - 1744 20 White Street in Mill Race Village, Mount Holly Currently the home of “Uniquely Native” it was headquarters of the Colonial Militia at the time of the Battle of Iron Works Hill
Sailor – Merchant – Banker - Philanthropist STEPHEN GIRARD 1750 – 1831 Bordeaux, France West Indies Philadelphia Mount Holly • Financed War of 1812 for USA • First Bank of the U.S • Stephen Girard Bank • Second Bank of the U.S. • Endowed Girard College • Girard Avenue, Phila. In 1776, he met, courted, and eventually married an eighteen-year old beauty, Philadelphia native, Mary Lum. Girard was then approaching his twenty-seventh birthday. Outweighing his need to tend to business was Girard's attachment and passion for Mary. Returning to France and continuing his sea life took a back seat to spending time with his new wife.