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A presentation created by Joe Laufer. Burlington County and The American Revolution. Battle of Trenton – December, 1776 Battle of Monmouth – June, 1778. AMERICAN REVOLUTION 1775-1783 Begins with the Battles of Lexington and Concord near Boston in April, 1775
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The American Revolution
Battle of Trenton – December, 1776
Battle of Monmouth – June, 1778
The Thomas Paine House became the home of the fiery pamphleteer in 1783. Paine's "Common Sense;' published in early 1776, began "These are the times that try men's souls.“ His words and spirit heartened many a patriot in the early days of the Revolution.
Prince St. at the waterfront
The statue creates the first memorial to Common Sense, which exemplifies the American Revolution. The memorial depicts Paine as both author and soldier. Paine wrote Common Sense in the fall of 1775, in support of representative government, democracy and equality for all. He is credited in some circles with ghost-authoring the Declaration of Independence. This transformed America's mission from a rebellion against taxation into a struggle for independence and self-determination. Paine donated the proceeds from Common Sense to the Revolution. In 1776-77, Paine fought in the army as an Aide-de-Camp for General Greene. In 1777 he was appointed Chairman to the Committee on Foreign Affairs.
Each building at this historic corner figures significantly into our area's Revolutionary War history. The Francis Hopkinson House was the home of one of New Jersey's five signers of the Declaration of Independence. Occupied by the enemy on several occasions, it was spared the torch by a scholarly Hessian officer who was impressed with Hopkinson's library.
Facing the Hopkinson House, across Farnsworth, stands the Patience Lovell Wright House, home of the noted American sculptor. Carried to England and the court of George III by her talent, Patience Wright reportedly gathered information helpful to the American Cause during the Revolution.
Next to the Wright House, across Park St., stands the home of Col. Joseph Borden, or rather the house built upon the foundations of Borden's home which was burned by the British in May 1778.
Across Farnsworth from Borden House stood Hoagland's Tavern, a center for the 2,000 Hessians and Scotsmen billeted in Bordentown under Col. Kurt von Donop in December 1776. Had these troops not been lured southward just prior to Washington's attack on Trenton, they might easily have reached the 1,500 Hessians quartered in Trenton and turned Washington's victory there into a devastating defeat.
Site of Hogland Tavern
206 High Street
At this place stood the little print shop in which Benjamin Franklin printed New Jersey currency in 1728, and from which Isaac Collins issued the State's first newspaper "The New Jersey Gazette" on 5 December 1777.
Temple B’nai Israel, 212 High St., the building to the left, built in 1916, is one of the oldest synagogues in South Jersey.
Old St. Mary's Church (corner Broad & Wood) had been chartered by Queen Anne in 1703. Its rector during the Revolution, Dr. Jonathan Odell, was so outspoken a Tory that he was once forced into hiding to save himself from an angry band of Burlington patriots.
Corner of High and Broad Streets
The Blue Anchor Tavern was established in 1750 and was one of the most popular gathering places in South Jersey. British and American troops used it during the war.
On July 3, 1776, The Declaration of Independence was read from the steps of the Blue Anchor Inn to the residents of the City of Burlington.
It was later known as the Belden House and the Metropolitan Inn.
It was recently rehabilitated and has retail space on the lower level and 16 affordable housing apartments on the upper levels. It is an example of “adaptave reuse” to preserve the historic architecture of this building.
John Trumbull - 1794
The Passage of the Delaware
Thomas Sully – 1819
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
Washington Crossing the Delaware George Caleb Bingham - 1871
Museum at Washington Crossing State Park, N.J.
The Swan Historical Foundation in 2000 commissioned Lloyd Garrison, an artist from
Red Bank, NJ to prepare a historically correct rendering of the crossing (on a ferry, not a Durham boat). Washington is seated, and his generals (Sullivan and Greene) are with him. The image is accurate as historical research and current knowledge of this event permits.
At his command post in Bordentown, Count von Donop had received reports on 19 December 1776 that an American force of nearly 3,000 men was gathering at Mount Holly and preparing to march north. The reports acquired new validity when, on 21 December, a Hessian outpost stationed at Petticoat Bridge was attacked by an American detachment of some 400 men. The Hessians, many of them wounded, fled back to Black Horse following the skirmish convinced that a much larger American force was on the way. On 22 December, von Donop came to Black Horse to assess the situation. Fearing that a surprise attack by the Americans would trap his troops against the river at Bordentown, he ordered his forces stationed there and at points south, to march on Mount Holly. In reality, the Americans at Mt. Holly under Col. Samuel Griffin numbered only 600. Hidden amidst the trees south of Petticoat Bridge, however, they appeared to be many more when they opened fire on the advancing Hessian troops on 23 December. Following their initial barrage, the Americans retreated for Mt. Holly and safety, south of the Rancocas.
Lower or “Old” Springfield Friends
Jobstown-Jacksonville Rd. (Rte. 670)
Located on the grounds of the Historic Mt. Holly Courthouse
Restored in 1999 with the help of a major Historical Preservation grant through the New Jersey Historic Trust and other funding.
Location: 81 High St., corner of Garden St.
Were quartered here on several occasions. At least one skirmish between
American and British Troops is recorded. Stephen Girard, the famous financier and merchant lived here during the British occupation of Philadelphia
St. Andrew’s Cemetery,
20 White Street in Mill Race Village, Mount Holly
Currently the home of “Uniquely Native” it was headquarters of the Colonial Militia at the time of the Battle of Iron Works Hill
1750 – 1831
In 1776, he met, courted, and eventually married an eighteen-year old beauty, Philadelphia native, Mary Lum. Girard was then approaching his twenty-seventh birthday. Outweighing his need to tend to business was Girard's attachment and passion for Mary. Returning to France and continuing his sea life took a back seat to spending time with his new wife.
Shortly after Girard married Mary Lum, he purchased a home at 211 Mill Street in Mount Holly, New Jersey. There they lived and established a store selling sundry items to the locals, at the same time selling provisions to the American revolutionaries — which annoyed the British greatly. Girard had embraced the American bid for liberty, but in so doing, also saw opportunity for profit. He continued his business dealings in Mount Holly as the war raged about him in New Jersey.
211 Mill St.
As the British left the Mount Holly area, Stephen Girard and his wife moved back to Philadelphia where their business flourished in 1777 and 1778. While enjoying his profits as a Philadelphia merchant, Girard was also acquiring a fondness for the city itself and its stimulating environment.
It is estimated that sixteen Durham boats, each holding up to 35 men, were utilized
in the crossing. Five separate crossings were required to transport Washington’s
2366 soldiers across the Delaware River. Artillery and horses were put on ferrries
since the design of the Durham boat was not practical for that purpose.
January 3, 1777
On January 3, 1777, the peaceful winter fields and woods of Princeton Battlefield were transformed into the site of what is considered to be the fiercest fight ofits size during the American Revolution. During this desperate battle, American troops under General George Washington
surprised and defeated a force of British
Regulars. Coming at the end of "The Ten Crucial Days" which saw the well-knownnight crossing of the Delaware River and two battles in Trenton, the Battle of Princeton gave Washington his first victory against the British Regulars on the field. The battle extended over a mile away to the College of New Jersey(now Princeton University).
The "White Hill Mansion" was the 18th Century home of the American patriots Robert and Mary Field. An early activist for the American cause, Field was to die shortly after the Revolution began, leaving his wife alone to protect her young family through the ravages of war. More than once her home was occupied and she was frequently interrogated for her alleged patriotic activities.As a result of the British army's capture of Philadelphia in the fall of 1777, most of the American navy, which had been stationed on the Delaware, became trapped upstream. For lack of a better place to moor, the vessels stood at the foot of White Hill in the spring of 1778, near the Field landing. In early May word reached the area that a detachment of British ships was sailing up the river to seize the American fleet and the inhabitants of this tiny community, acting under orders, took the only course open to them to prevent the seizure. When the British reached White Hill on 6 May 1778 they found the riverfront ablaze-local patriots having put the torch to each and every vessel.
"The kegs, 'tis said, tho' strongly made,of rebel stayes and hoops, sirCould not oppose their powerful foes,The.Conque'ring British Troops, sir:"
British Retreat from Philadelphia to Raritan Bay and NY via Burlington County– intercepted by Washington at Monmouth Courthouse on June 28th, 1778.
Approaching Burlington County the British split into two columns at the former Ellisburg Circle (Rt. 70 & Rt. 41 – Kings Highway) before rejoining at Mt. Holly.
Gen. Henry Clinton thru Mt. Laurel, and Eayrestown
Gen. von Knyphausen & Hessians thru Moorestown and Hainesport.
From Mt. Holly they proceeded thru Mansfield into Chesterfield and on into Monmouth Co.
Located at the intersection of Moorestown-Mount Laurel Road and Hainesport-Mount Laurel Road.
Operated under the Moorestown Meeting.
An Active Meeting.
In June, 1778, British Troops on the way to Freehold temporarily took over the new portion.
Built of New Jersey Sandstone quarried on “Evan’s Mount” (across the street). Two subsequent sections replaced the 1717 structure in 1760 and 1798 successively.
Mount Laurel played a small part in the American Revolution. Although no bloody battles were fought on Township ground, the American troops, led by General Washington, and the British forces, led by General Clinton, did pass through the area and camped here en route to meeting each other for battles elsewhere in New Jersey.
Washington led over 20,000 men (about half the current population of Mount Laurel) through the area from Philadelphia, and Clinton's army numbered about 15,000. It is reported that Washington's army did camp here for over a month; Clinton's for a few days.
General Clinton used a nearby tavern as the headquarters and a hospital for wounded soldiers. Other soldiers climbed trees on the 100 foot mount to see the location of Washington's army. When Washington came, the British headed northeast until they were confronted to fight at the famous Battle of Monmouth.
Hainesport-Mt. Laurel Road
This house, which dates back to 1744, when it was probably used as a tavern, is located on Hainesport-Mount Laurel Road, not far from the Quaker Meeting House. General Sir Henry Clinton used this house as his headquarters on June 19, 1778. The eastern end was added in 1784. The second window on the right upstairs as one faces the house from the street, replaces the "corpse door", a necessity in houses where staircases either spiraled or were too narrow to allow a coffin to pass. The house sits quartered to the road in the direction of the original Indian paths. The home is presently integrated into the Ramblewood Farms development.
12 High Street, Moorestown
As the British moved through Moorestown, General von Knyphausen and other Hessian officers stayed here. Two legends arose out of the stay: one, that the Hessians plucked and cooked chickens in the family’s parlor; and two, that Knyphausen had abominable table manners, choosing to eat with his hands rather than silverware.
Other Hessians stayed at what is today known as the Hessian House at Main and Schooley Avenues
Friends School and Meeting House
North corner of Chester and Main Streets, across from current Friend’s School
The Hessians encamped in and around here on the night of June 19, 1778. At that time there was a meeting house here. The current meeting house, across the street, was built after the Revolutionary War.
“At a small distance from…[Mount Holly] a bridge was broken down by the rebels which, when our people were repairing, were fired upon by those villains from a house, two of which were taken prisoners, three killed and the other two ran into the cellar and fastened it so we were obliged to burn the house and consume them in it.”
Bridge over the Rancocas at Hainesport during Clinton’s evacuation of Philadelphia
Corner of Garden and High Streets
Used as Commissary by British Troops
The Old School
35 Brainerd Street
Used by retreating British troops as a stable for their horses in June, 1778
Upper Springfield Quaker Burial Ground
A project of one man – Al Stephens of Monmouth Road, Springfield Township, it was erected in September, 1987 in the Upper Springfield Friends Burial Ground, behind the old Upper Springfield Quaker Meeting House at the end of Meeting House Road, not too far from the entrance to Ft. Dix off Route 68. The memorial reads: 1776-1783: Erected to the Memory of Revolutionary War Militiamen who gave their lives in local skirmishes with the British and Hessian forces and were placed in unmarked graves each known only to God.”
Charles Read is credited with building the Batsto Iron Works along the Batsto River in 1766. Batsto had the natural resources necessary for making iron. There was bog ore which was "mined" from the banks of the streams and rivers, wood from the forests became the charcoal for fuel, and water became the power for manufacturing. John Cox, a Philadelphia business man, became part owner in 1770 and full owner by 1773. The Iron Works produced household items such as cooking pots and kettles. During the Revolutionary War years, Batsto manufactured supplies for the Continental Army. Manager Joseph Ball became owner of Batsto Iron Works in 1779.
207 W. Broad St.
The Civil War
John Woolman: October 19, 1720 – October 7, 1772
John Woolman came from a family of Friends (Quakers). His grandfather, also named John Woolman, was one of the early settlers of New Jersey. His father Samuel Woolman was a farmer. Their estate was between Burlington and Mount Holly .
Because the city served as a river and railroad transportation nexus, the government designated Beverly as a Civil War “mustering-in city.”
The 10th, 23rd and 34th New Jersey Regiments mustered-in at Beverly.
Federal officials made use of the shuttered Union Manufacturing Company works, a former cutlery factory and converted the facility into an army hospital for treating injured troops there.
Of some 3,000 men treated in the hospital, at least 140 died and were buried in a nearby large field owned by Joseph Weyman of Beverly, who donated this land, fronting on Mount Holly Road, (in present-day Edgewater Township) to the government as a “Soldier’s Cemetery.”
With the end of the war, the hospital became the first cordage factory in Beverly.
Began as one-acre plot in 1863; added to in 1936, 37, 48 and 51.
147 Union soldiers buried there – 10 of them unknown
Listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1997.
64.6 acres; 48,533 veterans
The statue of the Civil War Union Soldier at rest was once located in Beverly National Cemetery, a few miles away in Edgewater Park on Mt. Holly Road. Prior to 1957, the statue, atop a pillar, stood in the center of the first circle inside the gates of the Cemetery, which places it very near the Civil War burials, located immediately on the left as you enter the gates.
Courtesy Paul W. Schopp
Burlington County has four cemeteries which
honor Black Civil War Heroes:
Church St., not far from the Mt. Holly bypass
Located on Elbo Lane, near Moorestown- Mt. Laurel Road.
The Colemantown Meeting House (1813) is shown to the left of Jacob’s A.M.E. Chapel (1859). The meeting house was built by Quakers for freed black slaves harbored in Mt. Laurel through the “Underground Railroad” by Quakers of the Mt. Laurel Meeting (less than 2 miles up Mt. Laurel Road). The old meeting house is currently used as a church hall. It was moved to its present location from across Elbo Lane in 1965. Dr.James Still, the renowned Black Doctor of the Pines, is buried in the cemetery behind the chapel.
General Ulysses S. Grant lodged his wife Julia Dent Grant and four children here in 1864 to avoid the Civil War conflict. They lived here until the war’s end in 1865.
Grant and his wife Julia, having declined President Lincoln’s invitation to attend a play at Ford Theater to travel to Burlington City, were at their home on Wood St. after receiving the news that Lincoln had been assassinated. Mrs. Grant describes the throngs of people who came to their “cottage” in Burlington later that evening to learn if the terrible news of the president’s death was true.
According to local legend, Grant spoke to his neighbors and friends from the home’s wrought iron balcony on the night Lincoln was assassinated.