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Ancient Egypt. Egyptian Mythology. Essential Standard. 6.C.1 Explain how the behaviors and practices of individuals and groups influenced societies, civilizations and regions.

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Ancient Egypt


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    1. Ancient Egypt Egyptian Mythology

    2. Essential Standard • 6.C.1Explain how the behaviors and practices of individuals and groups influenced societies, civilizations and regions. • 6.G.1Understand geographic factors that influenced the emergence, expansion and decline of civilizations, societies and regions (i.e. Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Americas) over time.

    3. Clarifying Objective • 6.C.1.2 Explain how religion transformed various societies, civilizations and regions (e.g., beliefs, practices and spread of Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam and Judaism). • 6.G.1.1 Explain how the physical features and human characteristics of a place influenced the development of civilizations, societies and regions (e.g., location near rivers and natural barriers, trading practices and spread of culture). • 6.G.1.4 Explain how and why civilizations, societies and regions have used, modified and adapted to their environments (e.g., invention of tools, domestication of plants and animals, farming techniques and creation of dwellings). • 6.C.1.1 Analyze how cultural expressions reflected the values of civilizations, societies and regions (e.g., oral traditions, art, dance, music, literature, and architecture).

    4. Polytheism • Egyptians were Polytheistic • This meant that they believed in many, many gods and not just one god like Christians believe in • Egyptians had gods for everything

    5. Understanding Maat • Maat is the Egyptian word for stability • Egyptians worshiped gods for everything because they believed the combination of these different gods would give Egypt stability

    6. Animals in Egyptian Mythology • Animals were central to Egyptian Mythology • Ancient Egyptians believed that animals held heavenly qualities • They shaped their gods after animals that they revered • Some of the animals were • Falcon (Horus) • Ram (Ra/Atum)

    7. Pharaoh • During the Old Kingdom when Egypt united Upper & Lower Egypt the King Meni became the Chief Priest or (Pharaoh) • He became the contact for all Egyptian men & women and their gods • He resided in Memphis the city that was built for him

    8. Pharaoh Controlled the Nile • The Egyptians believed that Pharaoh was given the power to control the Nile River • They believed that Pharaoh would make the Nile Flood every year to provide fertile ground for crops • He was given these powers by the Egyptian gods & goddesses • Here is the story of Egyptian Mythology

    9. Mastering Flood Cycles • Ancient Egyptians believed that Pharaoh had the key to mastering the flood cycles of the Nile • This is partially why they developed the calendar • If they could master the flood cycles (when it would flood every year) then they would know when to plant their crops

    10. Mastering Flood Cycles • Floods Cycles were so important because they left silt on top of the farmland which provided rich nutrients to the soil and helped more crops grow • This would give them extra crops at the end of the year • They would take the extra wheat and either store it for later or trade it with other civilizations

    11. Ancient City of Heliopolis • Heliopolis was the Ancient city of the Kings • Known as the City of the Sun • It is located near what is today the city of Cairo, Egypt (Capital city)

    12. Ancient City of Heliopolis • Heliopolis contained hieroglyphics all over its walls that contained the story of the creation of Egypt • The stories on these walls make up the “Creation Myths” • The Creation myths are based on the “Great Ennhead” which was a family of 9 Egyptian gods • The Temple of Atum still stands there today

    13. Nun • The story starts with Nun which was not a god at all • Nun was the waters of chaos that represented what Egypt would become with their gods • Nun was a deep dark ocean

    14. Atum/Ra the Sun god • Out of the waters of the Nun rose the island called Ben-Ben • The island was risen by Atum/Ra the Sun god • Atum/Ra was the god of all gods and the god of life • He stood atop of the island Ben-Ben

    15. Shu god of the Air • While on top of the island Atum coughed and spat out Shu • Shu was the god of the Air • Shu was the calming god & the god of pacifier • He was represented with Ostrich Feathers • Shu is the son of Atum

    16. Tefnut goddess of Moisture • Atum coughed once more and spat out Tefnut the goddess of Moisture • Ancient Egyptians worshiped her for she would bring the rains for their crops • Tefnut is portrayed sometimes as having a lioness head and sometimes fully human • She is the daughter of Atum

    17. Shu & Tefnut • Shu & Tefnut had two children • These were the grandchildren of Atum • The first child was Geb the god of the Earth • The second child was Nut the goddess of the Sky

    18. Geb • Geb was the first born and was the god of the Earth • Geb allowed crops to grow • Ancient Egyptians believed that Earthquakes was Geb laughing • He was depicted as a Ram, Bull, or Crocodile depending on what Kingdom time period it was

    19. Nut • Nut was the second born child and was the goddess of the Sky • She allows the stars to shine and she is the goddess of fertility • She protects souls & bodies as they journey into the afterlife

    20. Nut • She separates and protects the cosmos from the Nun • Goddess of direction as she is believed to have touched all points that give us cardinal direction (North, South, East & West) • She appears as either a naked woman covered in stars or a cow • Her symbol is a ladder (ladder was used by Osiris to climb to the stars)

    21. Nut goddess of the Sky & Babies • There was a reason she was the Egyptian goddess of fertility • Nut wanted to have many children • Atum the son god feared that one of Nut’s children would overthrow him and become god of gods • He declared that Nut will never be able to have children any day of the year

    22. Egyptian Calendar • Egyptians were the inventors of the calendar • They used this calendar to monitor when it was a good time to harvest their crops • They also used their calendar to give a time frame as to when things would happen (floods of the Nile happen in the spring or the 100th day on the Calendar) • At the time the Egyptian calendar only had 360 days

    23. Thoth has a Plan • Nut went to Thoth the god of wisdom and he had a plan • Thoth the god of wisdom knew that he could beat Khonshu the god of moonlight in a game • Khonshu’s moonlight was as bright as Atum’s sunlight

    24. Thoth Creates Days • Thoth & Khonshu were great friends so Thoth knowing he could win played many games with Khonshu • Every time that Thoth won Khonshu gave Thoth some of his moonlight • Soon Thoth had enough moonlight to create 5 extra days (365 day calendar) • This is very significant because it was the first modern calendar like ours with 365 days to a year

    25. Nut Bears Children • Thoth gives those days to Nut and since they were not part of the 360 day calendar she may give birth • On the first day she bears a son and names him Osiris

    26. Nut Bears Children • On the second day she gives birth to a girl and names her Isis • On the third day she bears another son and names him Set or Seth • On the fourth day she bore a second daughter and named her Nephthys

    27. 5th New Day • On the 5th day the son god finds out of this plan and is furious • There is no child born on this day • Atum/Ra storms into where Geb & Nut live and separates them for all of eternity

    28. 5th New Day • Nut’s father Shu was to keep them apart forever (this is why divorce was accepted in Egyptian culture) • Still Nut never regretted her decision

    29. Isis goddess of Religious Beliefs • Isis was the goddess of Religious Beliefs • She was worshiped as an ideal mother & wife and was the patroness of nature & magic • She was a friend of the slaves, sinners, & artisans • Mother of Horus

    30. Osiris god of the Egyptian People & The Underworld • Osiris became the first god of the Earth (first Pharaoh) • He was also god of the Underworld, Harvest, Eternal Life • He would decide with the help of the Pharaohs whose souls would through to eternity • Osiris is a good Pharaoh who rules with Isis for many years • However all was not well

    31. Set or Seth god of Darkness & Chaos • Set or Seth is the god of Darkness & Chaos • He is not a nice god • Ancient Egyptians do not worship this god but fear him • As the story of Heliopolis goes Seth becomes very jealous of his brother being the first Pharaoh Osiris

    32. Set or Seth god of Darkness & Chaos • Seth wanted to be ruler of the Earth • One night Seth snuck into where Osiris & Isis lived and killed Osiris • He mutilated his brother Osiris and tore his body into pieces • Seth became ruler of the Earth

    33. Osiris goes to the Underworld • Osiris goes to the Underworld and becomes King of the Underworld • Isis is heartbroken and reassembles Osiris corpse and travels to the Underworld to find him • Because she brings his body down Osiris soul is able to reunite with his body and he is temporarily resurrected

    34. Isis becomes Pregnant • While Osiris is resurrected and sharing moments with Isis she becomes pregnant • Osiris returns to the Underworld where he is King & Isis bears a son who they name Horus

    35. Horus the god of War • Horus was the god of war & hunting, god of the living • He is depicted as having a head of a hawk • The Pharaohs were said to be Horus in human form • Horus grows up and is furious at King Seth for murdering his father

    36. Horus Fights Seth • He challenges Seth to a fight to the death • The fight lasts several days with neither gaining control until the gods side with Horus and he defeats Seth

    37. Horus Becomes King of Earth • Horus becomes King of the Earth after defeating Seth • Osiris & Isis become permanent rulers of the Underworld • Peace is restored to Ancient Egypt • That is the Egyptian Mythology creation story

    38. Important Points • 6.C.1.2 (Polytheistic) Ancient Egyptians were polytheistic believing in more than 1 god • 6.C.1.1 (Art) Hold animals in high regard and use animals to represent their gods • 6.G.1.1 (Location Near Rivers) Egyptians used the Nile River to grow crops, provide a water source & for a means of trade both through sailing to ship goods & making items from the reeds