emotional development l.
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Early & Middle Childhood

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

Early & Middle Childhood - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 124 Views
  • Uploaded on

Emotional Development. Early & Middle Childhood. 65+. 30-65. 21-30. 12-21. 6-12. 3-6. 18m-3y. 0-18mo. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Personality Development. Take initiative in doing new tasks & interact with peers in make-believe play.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Early & Middle Childhood' - alina


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
erikson s psychosocial theory of personality development

65+

30-65

21-30

12-21

6-12

3-6

18m-3y

0-18mo

Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Personality Development

Take initiative in doing new tasks & interact with peers in make-believe play

Feel guilt (i.e., are self-conscious) if society is overly critical

erikson s psychosocial theory of personality development3

65+

30-65

21-30

12-21

6-12

3-6

18m-3y

0-18mo

Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Personality Development

Become industrious: good at something

Feel a sense of inferiority

self understanding early childhood
Self Understanding: Early Childhood

Tell me about yourself?

  • Self-concept: attributes, abilities, attitudes & values that define a person
    • 3-5 yrs:based on external attributes & behaviors

“I have yellow hair.”

“I paint pictures.”

“Yellow is my favorite color.”

    • Do not yet mention internal traits
  • Reason assert themselves over possessions

“Mine!”

self understanding early childhood5
Self Understanding: Early Childhood

How do you feel about yourself?

  • Self-esteem: judgments & feelings about one’s own worth & competencies
    • 4 yrs: “I’m a good painter”
    • Overestimate competencies
  • Contributes to development of initiative

Is this a good or bad thing?

self understanding middle childhood
Self Understanding: Middle childhood
  • Self-concept: emphasize internal competencies (& deficiencies) instead of external behaviors
    • “I paint well, but I’m not a good piano player; I try hard in school, but I only do okay.”
  • Contributes to development of industry
  • Self-esteem: influenced by social comparisons
    • gains in perspective taking
    • form an ideal self to

evaluate real self

How do children decide what they are & are not good at?

hierarchically structured self esteem9
Hierarchically Structured Self-esteem

Which type is most closely related to general self-esteem?

changes in self esteem in childhood marsh craven debus 1998
Changes in Self-esteem in Childhood(Marsh, Craven, & Debus, 1998)
  • Participants:396 preschool, 1st, & 2nd grader boys & girls
  • Measure: Self-Description Questionnaire
physical ability

Appearance

Physical ability

Academic

Social Competence

changes in self esteem in middle childhood marsh craven debus 1998
Changes in Self-esteem in Middle Childhood(Marsh, Craven, & Debus, 1998)
  • Participants:396 preschool, 1st, & 2nd grader boys & girls
  • Measure: Self-Description Questionnaire
  • Results summary:
    • Self-esteem drops during 1st few years of elementary
    • Physical appearance esteem drops sharply for girls
    • Most do not have exceptionally low self-esteem
slide13

What influences a child’s self-esteem?

** Culture & Child rearing practices**

  • Attributions: common explanations for causes of behavior
slide14

What influences a child’s self-esteem?

** Culture & Child rearing practices**

  • Attributions: common explanations for causes of behavior
examples of influences on attributions
Example

“Your such a smart kid!”

“Getting an ‘A’ is not

what matters.”

“It’s okay if you quit.”

“You got lucky on that test.”

“You could have studied harder to do well.”

Attribution Style

Helplessness

Mastery

Helplessness

Helplessness

Mastery

Examples of influences on attributions
emotional development16
Emotional Development
  • Understanding emotion
    • 4-5 yrs: provide explanations for emotions

“Happy because my picture’s pretty”

    • Limit: emphasize external & obvious reasons

“Happy because feel good about self”

emotional development17
Emotional Development
  • Emotion self-regulation
    • 3-4 yrs: strategies for adjusting emotional arousal
    • Leads to decline in emotional outbursts
    • Limit: Use external strategies until around age 10
    • Fear regulation & “display rules”

When would children need to regulate emotions?

emotional development18
Emotional Development
  • Self-conscious emotions: involve injury to or enhancement of self-concept
    • 3 yrs: shame or guilt over (even accidental) wrongdoing
    • Limit: audience is needed, rely on adult’s messages
    • Intense shame = maladjustment
    • Guilt = good adjustment

Do self-conscious emotions foster or hinder adjustment?

emotional development19
Emotional Development
  • Prosocial emotions & behaviors
    • 3 yrs: empathy - feeling with another
      • Related to perspective taking
    • Limit: leads to personal distress & doesn’t translate into sympathy – feeling for another

How do children acquire empathy?

theories of morality

Do you remember being spanked for bad behavior?

Theories of Morality
  • Develop from externally controlled morality to inner standards of morality through childhood
  • Social learning theory
    • Moral behaviors are learned through modeling & reinforcement in early childhood
    • Harsh punishment promotes:
      • momentary compliance
      • relief for parents
      • model for aggression, but…
    • Doesn’t achieve long-term goals
theories of morality23
Theories of Morality
  • Cognitive-developmental perspective
    • Middle childhood become active thinkers about social rules
    • More trustworthy in absence of adult supervision

“Wrong to take something that’s not yours”

    • Distributive justice(Damon, 1988)
slide24
Scenario

One day a teacher let her class spend the whole afternoon making paintings and crayon drawings. The teacher thought that these picture were so good that the class could sell them at the fair. They sold the pictures to their parents, and together the class made a lot of money. Now all the children gathered the next day and tried to decide how to split up the money.

  • What do you think they should do with it? Why?
  • Should a child who made more paintings get more money than the others? Why?
  • How about a child who doesn’t have enough money to buy lunch every day? Should they get more?
theories of morality25
Theories of Morality
  • Cognitive-developmental perspective
    • Middle childhood become active thinkers about social rules
    • More trustworthy in absence of adult supervision

“Wrong to take something that’s not yours”

    • Distributive justice(Damon, 1988)
      • 5-6 yrs: Equality
      • 6-7 yrs: Merit
      • 8+ yrs: Benevolence