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Children. 10. Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood. John W. Santrock. Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood. What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development? What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

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slide1

Children

10

Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood

John W. Santrock

socioemotional development in early childhood
Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood
  • What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?
  • What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?
  • How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?
the self

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

The Self
  • Initiative versus guilt
    • Third of Erikson’s eight stages
    • Initiative: enthusiasm for new activities; governed by conscience
    • Guilt: results when children’s efforts result in failure or criticism; lowers self-esteem
self understanding

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Self-Understanding
  • Child’s representation of self; substance and content of child’s self-conceptions
    • Self-recognition begins about 18 months
    • Young children view self in physical terms
    • Active dimension is central part of the self
    • Traits and emotions included by age 4 to 5
emotional development

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Emotional Development
  • Self-conscious (evaluative) emotions
    • Pride, shame, guilt, and embarrassment
    • First appear at about 2½ years
    • Pride and guilt more common
    • Heavily influenced by parents’ responses
    • Influenced by gender differences
young children s understanding of emotions

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Young Children’s Understanding of Emotions
  • Ages 4 to 5: children show increased ability to reflect on emotions
  • Self-regulation of emotions continues
  • Parents have important role in helping
    • Emotional-coaching: nurtures, uses praise
    • Emotional-dismissing: ignores, denies
emotional regulation and peer relations

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Emotional Regulation and Peer Relations
  • Emotions have major role in relations
    • Moody, negative children experience greater peer rejection
    • Emotionally positive children are popular
    • Children controlling emotional responses are more likely to show social competence
moral development

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Moral Development
  • Refers to thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and regulations about what people should do in interactions with other people
moral development9

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Moral Development
  • Freud: superego, Oedipal Conflict
    • Child conforms to avoid guilt
    • Girls express more guilt than boys
    • Empathy contributes to guilt
  • Piaget’s moral reasoning
    • Two distinct stages for children
moral development11

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Moral Development
  • Heteronomous morality
    • Justice and rules seen as unchangeable
    • Belief in immanent justice – punishment is immediate when rule is broken
  • As child ages
    • Thinking gets more sophisticated
    • Understands cooperation and negotiation
moral behavior

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Moral Behavior
  • Behavioral view
    • reinforcement, punishment, and imitation
  • Social cognitive view
    • influenced by situation, self-control development
parenting and young children s moral development

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Parenting and Young Children’s Moral Development
  • Parents give role-taking opportunities
    • Quality of parent-child relationships
      • Mutual obligations
      • Closeness
    • Proactive parenting strategies
      • Conversation and discipline
gender

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Gender
  • Social and psychological dimension of being female or male
    • Gender roles: set of expectations of how females or males should think, act, or feel
    • Gender identity: self-awareness of being male or female
    • Gender-typed preferences: masculine or feminine
biological influences on gender

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Biological Influences on Gender
  • 46 chromosomes; 23rd pair
  • Sex hormones
    • Estrogens: influence female physical sex characteristics
    • Androgens: promote growth of male genitals
    • Ambiguous genitals; sex surgically assigned, nature vs. nurture questions
the evolutionary psychology view

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

The Evolutionary Psychology View
  • Differing reproductive roles led to different evolutionary pressures
    • Males: multiple sexual partners for more offspring; dispositions for competition, violence, and risk-taking
    • Females: devote efforts to parenting and choose long-term mate who can provide
social influences

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Social Influences
  • Social role theory
    • Gender differences caused by contrasting social roles of women and men
    • Less power, status, and pay for women
    • Women show more cooperation
social influences18

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Social Influences
  • Psychoanalytic theory of gender
    • Preschool child sexually attracted to opposite-sex parent
    • At age 5 to 6, anxious feelings cause identification with same-sex parent
    • Unconsciously adopts same-sex parent’s characteristic behaviors
social influences19

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Social Influences
  • Social cognitive theory of gender
    • Gender develops through observation and imitation, use of rewards and punishments
    • Culture, school, media, and peer influence
  • Parental influences and behaviors
social influences20

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Social Influences
  • Gender and peer influences
    • Gender plays important role
    • Gender composition of groups
      • prefer same-sex groups by age 3, preference increases through age 12
    • Group size
      • boys prefer organized games, larger groups
social influences21

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Social Influences
  • Gender and peer influences
    • Interaction in same-sex groups
      • Boys in groups engage in rough-and-tumble play, competition
      • Girls engage in collaborative discourse
      • More time in same-sex groups linked to more gender-stereotyped behavior
slide22

Same-Sex

Mixed-Group

75

50

Percent of social playtime

25

4.5 years old

6.5 years old

Developmental Changes in Percentage of Time Spent in Same-Sex and Mixed-Group Settings

Fig. 10.3

school and teacher influences on gender

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

School and Teacher Influences on Gender
  • Concerns of classroom gender biases
    • Girls
      • More compliant
      • Easily identify with and model teachers (majority are female)
cognitive influences on gender

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Cognitive Influences on Gender
  • Cognitive Developmental Theory
    • Gender-typed behavior occurs aftergender constancy is developed
    • Children prefer activities, objects, and attitudes consistent with this label
cognitive influences on gender25

What Characterizes Young Children’s Socioemotional Development?

Cognitive Influences on Gender
  • Gender Schema Theory
    • Children gradually develop schemas of what is gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture
    • Gender schema: organizes world in terms of female and male
parenting

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Parenting
  • Attachment to caregiver is key
  • Socialization influenced by
    • Parenting styles
    • Sibling relationships
    • Context of family structure
classification of parenting styles

Classification of Parenting Styles

Classification of Parenting Styles

Accepting, responsive

Rejecting, unresponsive

Demanding, controlling

Undemanding, uncontrolling

Fig. 10.5

parenting styles in context

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Parenting Styles in Context
  • Juvenile delinquents
    • Adjudicated for serious offences
    • Those with authoritative parents were more psychosocially mature and academically competent than those with neglectful parents
    • Those from authoritarian or indulgent functioned best
parenting styles and ethnicity

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Parenting Styles and Ethnicity
  • Asian American families
    • Trainingyields positive outcomes
  • Latino childrearing
    • Encourage development of family and self- identity; requires respect and obedience
  • African American families
    • Use of nonabusive physical punishment
punishment and discipline

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Punishment and Discipline
  • Corporal (physical) punishment
    • Spanking linked to antisocial behaviors
    • Strong emotional support of parents reduces link
    • Associated with immediate compliance or aggression and lower levels of morality
punishment and discipline31

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Punishment and Discipline
  • Corporal (physical) punishment
    • Reasons to avoid physical punishment use
      • Provides out-of-control role models
      • Punishment instills negative feelings
      • Fails to tell or show what is expected
      • Punishment can be abusive
  • Experts recommend reasoning, time-out
    • Coparenting is important
child maltreatment

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Child Maltreatment
  • Types of child maltreatment
    • Physical
    • Child neglect
    • Sexual: fondling, penetration, exploitation
    • Emotional: psychological, verbal/mental
the context of abuse

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

The Context of Abuse
  • Many factors cause child maltreatment; culture, family, and development
    • Regular diet of violence on television
    • Parents lacking sufficient resources or help
    • Context of family interactions
    • Parental history and beliefs
developmental consequences of abuse

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Developmental Consequences of Abuse
  • Poor emotion regulation
  • Attachment and peer relation problems
  • School difficulties
  • Psychological problems
    • Anxiety, personality disorder, depression, suicide attempts, conduct disorder
  • Later risk of violence, substance abuse
sibling relationships and birth order

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Sibling Relationships and Birth Order
  • Sibling relationships
    • Can be both pleasant and aggressive
    • Siblings treat children different than parents
    • Extensive conflict linked to poor outcomes
    • Birth order affects sibling relationships
working parents

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Working Parents
  • Many researchers find no detrimental effects of maternal employment
  • Greater risk of problems if:
    • Work stress spills into home
    • Mother works in child’s first year
    • Type of day care environment may impact
single parent families in different countries

30

25

20

Percent of families with

children under 18

15

10

5

0

USA

Sweden

Canada

Germany

UK

Australia

France

Japan

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Single-Parent Families in Different Countries

Fig. 10.7

divorced families

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Divorced Families
  • More likely to show poorer adjustment
  • Socially mature, responsible children show fewer behavioral problems
  • Less-competent children have lower self-esteem, more behavior problems
  • Joint custody and sole custody
slide40

30

20

Percent of children showing serious emotional problems

10

0

Intact, never divorced

Divorced

Type of family

Divorce and Children’s Emotional Problems

25% of children from divorced families show serious emotional problems compared to only 10% of children from intact, never divorced families

Fig. 10.8

communicating about divorce

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Communicating About Divorce
  • Explain the separation
  • Explain it is not the child’s fault
  • Explain it takes time to feel better
  • Keep door open for more discussion
  • Provide as much continuity as possible
  • Provide support for self and children
other divorce issues

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Other Divorce Issues
  • Should parents stay or go?
  • Family processes matter in divorce
  • Factors affecting child’s adjustments
    • Personality, gender, temperament, maturity
    • Custody, relocation, and SES
  • Custody issues and effects of gay and lesbian divorces
variations in families

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Variations in Families
  • Cross-Cultural
    • Warm, controlling style most common
  • Ethnicity
    • Linked to family size, structure, education, income, composition, extended networks
socioeconomic status

What Roles Do Families Play in Young Children’s Development?

Socioeconomic Status
  • Lower-SES parents
    • Focus on child conformity, parental authority
    • More use of physical punishment as discipline
    • More directive, less conversational with children
  • Higher-SES parents
    • Focus on child initiative, delayed gratification
    • Less directive, more conversational
    • Child has input in rules; less use of physical punishment
peer relations

How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?

Peer Relations
  • Peers:
    • Individuals near same age or maturity level
    • Help children learn comparison, reciprocity, fairness, justice
    • Negative influences possible
functions of play

How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?

Functions of Play
  • Play: pleasurable activity engaged in for its own sake; functions, forms vary
  • Functions
    • Health, tension release, master conflicts
    • Affiliation with peers
    • Cognitive development and exploration
    • Therapists and play therapy
parten s categories of play

How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?

Parten’s Categories of Play

Unoccupied

Child not engaging in play as commonly understood; might stand in one spot

Solitary

Child plays alone, independently of others

Onlooker

Child watches other children play

Parallel

Child plays separately from others, but in manner that mimics their play

Associative

Play that involves social interaction with little or no organization

Cooperative

Play that involves social interaction in

group with sense of organized activity

types of play

Sensorimotor

Infants derive pleasure from exercising their sensorimotor schemes

Practice

Repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned

Pretense/Symbolic

Occurs when child transforms physical environment into symbol

Social

Involves social interactions with peers

Constructive

Self-regulated creations or solutions

Games

Activities engaged in for pleasure; include rules

How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?

Types of Play
television and its effects

How Are Peer Relations, Play, and Television Involved in Young Children’s Development?

Television And Its Effects
  • Child – more time with TV than parents
    • Negative and positive influences
      • Violence and aggression
      • Altered states of ‘rational’ thought
      • Program types linked to academic achievement
    • Creates passive learner
slide50

2.9

2.8

2.82

2.7

2.6

2.5

2.53

Mean high school overall GPA

2.48

2.4

2.37

2.3

2.2

2.1

2.0

Quartiles of child informative viewing at age 5

Educational TV Viewing and Boys’ GPA

Amount and patterns of preschool TV viewing have a later impact on boys’ high school GPA

Fig. 10.10

the end

Children

10

The End