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Functional Assessment in Early Childhood Settings Using the Teaching Tools (TTYC). Bobbie Vaughn, Ph.D. Florida Center for Inclusive Communities University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities University of South Florida. TTYC Background.

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Functional Assessment in Early Childhood Settings Using the Teaching Tools (TTYC)


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    1. Functional Assessment in Early Childhood Settings Using the Teaching Tools(TTYC) Bobbie Vaughn, Ph.D. Florida Center for Inclusive Communities University Center for Excellence in Developmental Disabilities University of South Florida

    2. TTYC Background • Increase in numbers of children with challenging behavior • It’s estimated that 10-15% of young children have mild to moderate behavior problems (Campbell,1995) • In • Early childhood educators (300) indicated the highest rated training need was addressing problem behavior (Joseph, Strain, & Skinner, 2004).

    3. Promoting Children’s Social and Emotional Development and Addressing Challenging Behavior 1-10% Children with Persistent Challenges Focused Interventions 5-15% Children at-Risk Intervention and Support All Children Universal Interventions

    4. The Teaching Pyramid Individualized Intensive Interventions Social Emotional Teaching Strategies Supportive Environments Building Positive Relationships with Children, Families and Other Professionals

    5. Positive Behavior Support (PBS) • Is an approach that leads to Lifestyle and Quality of life changes • Is based on humanistic values and research • Is an approach for developing an understanding of why children have challenging behavior • Is a systems change approach that occurs in natural settings • Is a proactive approach that integrates all aspects of the child’s life

    6. “If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we……….teach? ………punish?” “Why can’t we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others?” Tom Herner (NASDE President ) Counterpoint 1998, p.2)

    7. General intervention for all behavior problems Intervention is reactive Focus on behavior reduction Quick Fix Intervention matched to purpose of the behavior Intervention is proactive Focus on teaching new skills Long term interventions Old Way New Way

    8. Challenging Behavior Communicates • Communicates a message when a child does not have language. • Used instead of language by a child who has limited social skills or has learned that challenging behavior will result in meeting his or her needs.

    9. Challenging Behavior Works • Children engage in challenging behavior because “it works” for them. • Challenging behavior results in the child gaining access to something or someone (i.e., obtain/request) or avoiding something or someone (i.e., escape/protest).

    10. Brendan – Before PBS

    11. Brendan – With PBS

    12. Importance of PBS

    13. Pilot Study-Derrick • Derrick is 4 years and lives with his biological brother with a family providing foster care (adoption in process); • Has both articulation and language delays, along with delays in cognition; • Has difficulty during circle times, transitions, lining up, and clean-up; • Dumps, touches/takes items, pushes/shoves, falls to ground, throws, roams room, hits, invades peers’ space, leaves area, crawls through activity, “corrals” others in joining in his inappropriate activities • Is very loving, enjoys movement activities, singing, and art; and • He is in a Part B special education class for young children with varying developmental delays

    14. Mean Percentage of Intervals with Engagement and Challenging Behaviors Across Transition Routines for Derrick Percentage of Intervals

    15. Derrick’s Supplemental Supports for Transitions Used real photograph

    16. Derrick’s Supplemental Supports for Transitions (cont.)

    17. Derrick’s Support Plan • DerricktransSuppPlanSheet.doc

    18. Getting Started with TTYC

    19. User’s Manual • Provides a rationale for the Teaching Tools • Emphasizes the importance of “getting started” (or the initial steps to take) • Provides essential steps for planning the supports needed for the young child with challenging behavior • Introduces the tools

    20. Getting Started • Step 1: Establishing a good foundation • Toolkit Tips (LINK) • Communication is Key (LINK) • Step 2: Understanding the Child • “My Teacher Wants to Know” questionnaire • Daily Routine • Step 3: Selecting Strategies • Routine Based Support Guide • Teacher’s Support Planning Sheet

    21. Individualized Process of PBS • 1. Goal Setting and Team Building • 2. Functional Behavioral Assessment • 3. Hypothesis Development • 4. Behavior Support Plan • 5. Implementation & Monitoring

    22. Individualized Process of PBS • 1. Goal Setting and Team Building • 2. Functional Behavioral Assessment • 3. Hypothesis Development • 4. Behavior Support Plan • 5. Implementation & Monitoring

    23. Pay Now? Pay Later?

    24. When is Functional Behavior Assessment Necessary? • Does the behavior hinder learning? • Is the behavior resulting in social exclusion? • Is the behavior limiting access to activities or environments? • Is the behavior resulting in:- harm to the individual or others?- substantial property damage?

    25. Four Things To Know • Understand Triggers • Teach Communication/social skills • Change Responses • Base interventions on Function

    26. Triggers • Events happen prior to challenging behavior • “Slow triggers” AKA Setting Events • “Fast triggers” • Examples: • Demands • Nonpreferred activity • Specific persons/children • Another child has a toy • Staff attending to another student

    27. The Importance of Triggers • Set off the behavior-what pushes buttons • Change trigger and prevent or minimize behavior

    28. Importance of Teaching New Behaviors • Offers a new behavior or replacement to the problem behavior • May reinforce an existing behavior • Must serve the same purpose as the problem behaviors • Must be reinforced as frequently

    29. The Importance of Responses • Maintain or make behavior continue • Change response and change the effects of the behavior • Change response and set a model for interactions • Can extinguish/suppress behavior

    30. Two Main Functions • To get or obtain attention, things, materials, toys, food, etc. • To get away, escape, or avoid things, activities, people, etc.

    31. The Importance of Functions or Purpose of Behavior • Understand the purpose then teach different behaviors that accomplish the same purpose • Understand purpose and create interventions that change the environment so that the behavior is no longer necessary

    32. Getting Started • Step 1: Establishing a good foundation • Toolkit Tips (Link) • Communication is Key (LINK) • Step 2: Understanding the Child • “My Teacher Wants to Know” questionnaire • Daily Routine • Step 3: Selecting Strategies • Routine Based Support Guide • Teacher’s Support Planning Sheet`

    33. Functional Assessment: How To Do it • Interviewsor surveys with persons that know the child well • Observations of the child in different settings and with different people

    34. Interviews • Ask about triggers • Asks about behavior/play • Ask about “responses” of others and what the child or person gets from those responses or the function of the behavior • Ask about the child’s or person’s communication • Ask about the child’s preferences My Teacher Wants to Know

    35. Observation Card

    36. Individualized Process of PBS • 1. Goal Setting and Team Building • 2. Functional Behavioral Assessment • 3. Hypothesis Development • 4. Behavior Support Plan • 5. Implementation & Monitoring

    37. Case Study Activity • Review child description • Review “My Teacher Wants to Know” questionnaire • Review “Daily Routine” data • Review “Routine Based Support Guide” • Determine “Why might he/she be using the behavior” (communicative function) • Select preventions, new responses, and new replacement skills to teach • Complete chart and family ideas on “Teacher Support Planning Sheet” TeacherSupportPlanningSheet.doc

    38. Summarize Ideas and Information Gathered from Functional Assessment • Gather information from interviews, observations, and records or files • One's best informed guess about the relationship between environmental events (triggers and responses) and the child’s challenging behavior • Summarize then use information to create a behavior support plan

    39. How to Summarize • State the trigger, behavior, consequence and function • When Brendon goes to a new setting or new activity, he will fall down, kick, and cry until mom picks him up to delay or escpe the transition

    40. Individualized Process of PBS • 1. Goal Setting and Team Building • 2. Functional Behavioral Assessment • 3. Hypothesis Development • 4. Behavior Support Plan • 5. Implementation & Monitoring

    41. Consider the Whole Child Play Interactions Toys, Level of play, Opportunities, Choice, Expectations… Health Communication to the child, Emotional support, Attachment… Trauma, Illness, Stamina, Medication… Learning Environment Friends CHILD Schedules, Room arrangement, Materials, Adaptations, Resources, Predictability… Shared interests & experiences, Relationships… Home & Family Outings/Events Instruction Places family goes, Activities… Routines, Resources, Siblings, Environment, Respite, Predictability, Extended family… Transitions, Cues, Prompts, Supports, Accommodations…

    42. Changing Behavior with Positive Behavior Support (PBS) • Determine the “Hypotheses” (Derived from Functional Behavior Assessment) • Your best guess of what the problem behavior communicates (triggers, behavior description, maintaining consequences) • Set up “Preventions” • Ways to make events and interactions that trigger problem behavior easier for the child to manage • Teach “New Skills” • Skills to teach throughout the day to replace the problem behavior • “Respond” in a new way • What adults will do when the problem behavior occurs to ensure that the problem behavior is not maintained and the new skill is learned

    43. Contextual Fit • Contextual fit is the match between the components of a behavior support plan and characteristics of individuals implementing the plan and a child who receives the plan

    44. Teaching Replacement Skills • Must be easy for the child and caregiver • Must result in reinforcement • Must occur in all environments • Must occur when student is not having problem behavior • Must occur with sufficient intensity to ensure acquisition • Must be taught systematically

    45. Adult gives child another turn. Child yells, kicks, throws. Child told peer gets a turn. Adult says “one more turn, then (peer’s name)’s turn” and gives turn. Child asks for one more turn.