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Skeletal System. Functions. Support: body structure and shape Protection: vital organs surrounded Movement/Anchorage of Muscles Mineral Storage: calcium & phosphorus Blood Formation. Formation and structure.

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functions
Functions
  • Support: body structure and shape
  • Protection: vital organs surrounded
  • Movement/Anchorage of Muscles
  • Mineral Storage: calcium & phosphorus
  • Blood Formation
formation and structure
Formation and structure
  • Composed of connective tissue called osseous tissue and rich supply of blood vessels and nerves
  • Osseous tissue is composed of : _______________
bone formation
Bone Formation
  • Skeleton fully formed by 2nd month of fetal development (all cartilage)
  • Ossification (replacement of cartilage with bone cells and calcium salts) begins after 8th week of fetal development
  • Childhood and adolescence: ossification ______ bone loss
  • Early adulthood through middle age: ossification ______ bone loss
  • After age 35: bone loss _______ ossification
bone formation ossification
Bone Formation/Ossification

Ossification: replacement of cartilage with bone

  • Cells:
    • osteoblast: produce immature bony tissue that replaces cartilage (the “builders”)
    • osteocyte: nourishes and maintains bone
    • osteoclast: reabsorb or digest bone (the “remodelers”)
    • Osteoblasts and osteoclasts work to deposit and tear down bone throughout life
bone growth
Bone Growth
  • Grow in length at the epiphyseal line
  • Grow in width by addition of bone to the surface
  • Controlled by anterior pituitary (GH)
bone composition
Bone Composition
  • Proper formation of bone depends on sources of calcium, phosphorous, and vitamin D.
  • Vit. D helps with absorption of ________
  • Once Calcium and phosphorous are in the blood osteoblastic activity forms the enzyme Calcium phosphate
  • Calcium phosphate: gives bone its characteristic _________________
  • Collagen: chief organic constituent (protein)
bones cont d
Bones (cont’d.)
  • Bone is the reservoir for calcium storage
  • Calcium necessary for nerve transmittal to muscle When insufficient, it interferes with nerve transmission causing muscle weakness and spasms
  • Ca level maintained by the _______________, which secretes a hormone to release calcium from bone
compact bone cortical
Compact Bone (Cortical)
  • Dense, Stress Bearing
  • Haversian Systems: system of small canals which contain blood vessels that bring _____and _____ to bone and remove waste products
  • Medullary cavity: central shaft of long bone composed of _______ marrow (stores fat cells)
cancellous bone spongy trabecular
CancellousBone (spongy/trabecular)
  • Light, spongy
  • Found at ____________, ribs, sternum, hips, vertebrae, cranium spaces
  • Contain red bone marrow with elements for blood formation
bone markings purpose
Bone Markings - Purpose
  • Join one bone to another
  • Provide a surface for attachment of muscles
  • Create an opening for passage of blood vessels and nerves
  • Use as landmarks
major types of bone markings
Major types of Bone Markings

•Processes/Projections: serve as attachments for muscles and tendons

  • Depressions: openings or hollow regions help join bones or serve as passageways __________________
  • Ridges - ____________________
bones by shapes
Bones by Shapes

Reference: Gerdin, Judith. Health Careers Today. 3rd edition. Mosby, 2003

long bones
Extremities (Femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, ulna, radius, clavicle

Act as ______

Epiphysis: at the _____; covered with hyaline cartilage for articulating bones (provides ______); cancellous bone

Epiphyseal line or plate: growth plate

Diaphysis: shaft, covered with periosteum, contains ______bone marrow

Medullary cavity – located in the shaft of a long bone. This cavity is surrounded by compact bone and lined with endosteum and contains _______ bone marrow

Metaphysis: flared portion of the bone

Long Bones
periosteum
Periosteum
  • Dense, fibrous membrane covering bone
  • Contains blood vessels
  • Essential for bone cell survival and bone formation
bone structure cont d
Bone Structure (cont’d.)

(A) Divisions of a long bone and interior structure

(B) composition of compact (cortical) bone

short bones
Short Bones
  • _____-shaped
  • Allows ____________
  • Cancellous bone covered by compact bone
  • Carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
flat bones
Flat Bones
  • Flat plates
  • Protect ____________
  • Provide broad surface area for attachment of ________
  • Cranial bones, Facial bones, Scapula, Sternum
irregular bones
Irregular Bones
  • Peculiarly shaped to provide support and protection with ____________
  • Vertebrae, Ribs, Ear, Hip, Hyoid
  • Includes Sesamoid bones
sesamoid bones
Sesamoid Bones
  • Extra bones found around ________i.e. Patella
cartilage
CARTILAGE
  • Smooth, rubbery, white connective tissue
  • Acts as a _____________ between bones
  • Makes up the flexible parts of the skeleton as well as the ____________________
    • ___________– covers the surfaces of the bones that form joints
    • __________– curved, fibrous cartilage found in some joints (knee and jaw)
joints
JOINTS
  • _________ – jagged lines where bones joint that does not move (top of an adult’s skull – coronal /Sagittal sutures)
  • __________ –Cartilaginous joint –2 bones join and are held firmly together; function as one (pelvic symphyses)
  • ______________– movable
    • Ball and socket (hip)
    • Hinge (knee, elbow)
bursae
Bursae
  • Closed sacks of synovial fluid with a synovial membrane located near, but not within a joint. Needed where sliding must take place
  • Common sites:
    • between tendons (connective tissue connecting muscle to bone) and bones
    • between ligaments (binding bone to bone) and bone
    • between skin and bones (with prominent bony anatomy)
skeleton
SKELETON
  • AXIAL SKELETON (80 BONES)
    • Skull
    • Spinal Column
    • Ribs
    • Sternum
  • APPENDICULAR SKELETON (126 bones)
    • Upper extremities
    • Lower extremities
skull cranium
Skull - Cranium
  • Houses and protects the brain
  • _______: forms forehead
  • ________: forms roof of nasal cavity
  • _______right & left; form sides and roof of skull
  • ________: right & left; forms temple, cheek, ear openings
slide31
_______: back of skull; inferior portion has foramen magnum (opening for spinal cord) and 2 condyles to articulate with atlas
  • _________: fills space between orbital plates; depression called sella turcica holds the pituitary gland; bat shaped
cranial sutures
Cranial Sutures
  • Unite the bones of the cranium
  • As the child grow, irregular bands of connective tissue ossifies and turns into hard bone
sutures
Sutures
  • _________Suture: between the frontal and parietal bones
  • _________ Suture: between right and left parietal bones
  • ________Suture: between the parietal and occipital bones
  • _________ Suture: between temporal and parietal bones
fontanels
Fontanels
  • Fusion of the cranial bones is not complete at birth
  • Space between the bones remains
  • Anterior (Bregmatic): “soft spot”, closes at ___months
  • Posterior (Occipital): triangular, closes at _____ months
facial bones continued
Facial Bones Continued
  • ______ (2): cheek bones
  • ______ (2): small bones form medial wall of each eye socket
  • _______ (2): forms back roof of mouth and floor of nose
  • ________(2): forms curved ledge inside side wall of nose
ear bones
Ear Bones
  • Malleus (2): the hammer
  • Incus (2): the anvil
  • Stapes (2): the stirrup
hyoid bone
Hyoid Bone
  • U-shaped bone
  • In neck
  • At base of tongue
  • Only bone in body that does NOT articulate with another bone
spinal vertebral column
SPINAL/VERTEBRAL COLUMN
  • 26 Vertebrae
  • Five divisions
    • C1 to C7 = Cervical
    • T1-T12 = Thoracic
    • L1-L5 = Lumbar
    • Sacrum (5 bones fuse when young)
    • Coccyx (4 bones fused together)
functions1
Functions
  • Supports trunk and _____.
  • Protects ____________
  • Multiple joint spaces allow for ______ and twisting
bones of the thoracic cavity
BONES OF THE THORACIC CAVITY
  • RIBS – 12 pairs, called ______ (first 7 = true, RIBS 8-12 = false ribs;

last 2 pairs = floating)

  • _________– breast bone
    • Manubrium
    • Body
    • Xiphoid process (cartilage)
functions2
Functions
  • Protect and support heart and ______
  • Supports bones of pectoral girdle
  • Plays leading role in ________
  • Ribs and sternum aid in RBC formation
shoulder girdle
Shoulder Girdle
  • Clavicles (2): collar bones
  • ________(2): shoulder blades
  • Acromion: extension of the scapula/high pt
upper extremities
Upper Extremities
  • Humerus: ____________
  • Radius: _____side of forearm
  • ______: little finger side of forearm
  • Olecranon process (funny bone)
wrists and hands
WRISTS AND HANDS
  • Carpals (8) = ______
  • Metacarpals (5) = _______________
  • ______ (14) = fingers
    • Distal
    • Medial
    • Proximal
pelvic girdle
Os Coxae (2): contains the acetabulum (hip socket)

3 components:

_________ – upper blade of the pelvic girdle

Sacroiliac – slightly moveable articulation betw. sacrum and ilium

Ischium – ______, posterior portion

Also, contains the sacrum

PELVIC GIRDLE
lower extremities
LOWER EXTREMITIES
  • Femur: ________
  • Patella: kneecap
  • Tibia: _________
  • Fibula: lateral bone of lower leg
ad