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NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION. TOPICS Clothes and Color Design,Movable Objects and Lighting, Seating, Space, Silence and Vocal Cues, Material, Touch, Time, Differences Between Men & Women in NVC, Cultural Differences in NVC, NVC in Job Interviews. CLOTHES. “ Do clothes communicate? ”.

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slide2
TOPICS
  • Clothes and Color
  • Design,Movable Objects and Lighting,
  • Seating,
  • Space,
  • Silence and Vocal Cues,
  • Material,
  • Touch,
  • Time,
  • Differences Between Men & Women in NVC,
  • Cultural Differences in NVC,
  • NVC in Job Interviews.
clothes

CLOTHES

“Do clothes communicate?”

slide4
Clothes are important to firstimpressions.

Females

Males

Clothes (same & opposite-sexed partners)

Clothes(same-sexedpartners)

Figure and face

(opposite-sexed partners)

slide5

CLOTHES (cont.)

People adorn themselves with a number of other artifacts such as;

  • Badges
  • Tattoos
  • Masks
  • Earrings
  • Jewelry
slide6

Colors can affect human behavior.

  • There is a big impact of colors on mental growth and social relations.
  • The most pleasant huesblue, green, purple, yellow, red.
  • The most arousing hues red, orange, yellow, violet, blue, green.
colors moods
COLORS & MOODS

Secure/Comfortable

Calm/Peaceful

Cheerful/Joyful

Distressed/Upset

Defiant/Hostile

Unhappy/Melancholy

colors moods cont
COLORS & MOODS (cont.)

Exciting/Stimulating

Calm/Peaceful

Protective/Defending

Dignified/Stately

Protective/Defending

Unhappy/Melancholy

Powerful/Strong

design in negotiation room
DESIGN INNEGOTIATION ROOM
  • Fixed-feature refers to space organized by unmoving boundaries (rooms of houses).
  • Semifixed-feature refers to the arrangement of movable objects such as tables or chairs.
design cont
DESIGN (cont.)

Sometimes we get very definite person orcouple-related messages from home environments.

Ugly room

Beautiful room

monotony, fatigue, headache,

discontent, sleep, irritability,

hostility.

pleasure, comfort, enjoyment, importance, energy.

lighting in negotiation room
LIGHTING INNEGOTIATION ROOM
  • Lighting helps to structure our perceptions of an environment, and these perceptions also may influence the type of messages we send.
  • The absence of light seems to be a central problem for people who suffer from “seasonal affective disorder” a form of depression particularly acute in winter months.
movable objects and seating
MOVABLE OBJECTS AND SEATING
  • The arrangement of certain objects in our environment can help structure communication.
  • Employees often use objects to personalize their offices.
  • The arrangement of other items of furniture can facilitate or inhibit communication.
seating b ehaviors
Seating Behaviors
  • Leadership: At the head or foot of the table.

X

X

seating b ehaviors cont
Seating Behaviors (cont.)

2. Dominance:

2 3 4

1

5

2 and 4 are anxious and actually stated they wanted to stay out of the discussion.

1,3, and 5 also were considered to be positions of leadership but of a different type, depending on the position.

1 and 5 attracted the task-oriented leader, the middle position attracted a socioemotional leader-one concerned about group relationships.

4 and 5 are twice as likely to talk to each other as 3 and 4.

The other main conversations will occur between 2 and 3, 3 and 4.

The most likely conversation is between 4-5 and 1-2.

1, 3, and 5 are frequent talkers, dominant personalities

seating b ehaviors cont1
Seating Behaviors (cont.)

3. Task:

  • Conversion:
  • Cooperation:
  • Coaction:
  • Competition:

X

Sitting and chatting for a few minutes before class.

X

Sitting and studying together for the same exam.

X

X

X

Sitting studying for different exams.

X

X

Sitting face to face across a table.

X

slide16
Seating Behaviors (cont.)

4. Sex and Acquaintance:

  • In the bar, corner seating for the same-sex friends and casual friends of the opposite sex.
  • Intimate friends appear to desire side-by-side seating.
  • In a restaurant everyone choose opposite seating.

X

X

X

X

X

X

slide17

Seating Behaviors (cont.)

5.Motivation:

High-Positive

Motivation

“sittingwith your boyorgirlfriend.”

High-Negative

Motivation

“sitting with someone you do not like very much and do not wish to talk to.”

slide18

5. Motivation (cont.)

  • As motivation increases, persons want to sit closer or to have more eye contact.
  • When the motivation is affiliative, the choice is sit closer,
  • When the motivation is competitive, the choice is one that will allow more eye contact.
slide19

Seating Behaviors (cont.)

Extravertschoose to sit opposite (either across the table or down the length of it).

Introvertschoose positions that would keep them more at a distance, visually and physically.

6. Introversion-Extraversion:

slide20

NEGOTIATION TABLE

It is a typical configuration for contract negotiations. The two parties sit together to indicate and foster unity. Each team is on a different side of the table and the teams are facing each other so each team member can clearly hear what anyone on the other team has to say.

slide21

This table may tend to give one party an advantage over the other because the arrangement suggests only one important person, the person at the end of the vertical extension.

slide22

This table shows a need for space between the two parities. That space could mean more formality or less trust.

slide23

This table may be the most conducive to win/win negotiations because the round shape is usually associated with equality.

space
SPACE

Each of you has a “personal space”, a sort of invisible bubble around you, which you feel is yours and which you do not like to see intruded upon without express permission.

space cont
SPACE (cont.)

Three major interpersonaldistances are “intimate”, “social” and “public”.

space cont1
SPACE (cont.)

Interpersonal distance is one of the ways you have to express feelings. You tend to move closer to people you like and away from people you do not, if you have a choice.

silence
SILENCE
  • Silence is another form of communication that can make a situation awkward if used.
  • Silence occurs when;
  • You are terribly angry, frustrated.
  • You are attentively listening to something.
  • You listen but are bored.
  • You cannot think of a thing to say.
  • You are thinking about a point made by speaker.
  • You do not understand what the speaker said.
  • There is no more to be said on the matter.
  • Do not need to say anything.
the effects of vocal cues
THE EFFECTS OF VOCAL CUES

Vocal behavior deals with how something is said, not what is said.

Prosody is the word used to describe all the variations in the voice that accompany speech and help to convey its meaning.

slide29
He’s giving this money to Herbie. (He’s the one giving the money, nobody else.)
  • He’s giving this money to Herbie. (He’s giving, not lending, the money.)
  • He’s giving this money to Herbie. (The money being exchanged is not from another fund or source; it is this money.)
  • He’s giving this money to Herbie. (Money is the unit of exchange, not a chech or wampum.)
  • He’s giving this money to Herbie. (This recipient is Herbie, not Eric or Bill or Rod)
material usage in nonverbal communication
MATERIAL USAGE IN NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
  • giving a message that you are making an importantexplanation.
  • threat to the person in front of you.
  • distracting yourself and trying to gain time.
  • the subject is over.
slide31

make people intellectual

  • openness and honesty
  • not respect you
  • Hanging it on your neck makes you serious and charismatic.
  • Playing with eyeglasses means you are bored.
slide32

Pipe makes the user DOMINANT in his/her speech.

  • Blowing a cigarette upper means you are comfortable and powerful.
  • Blowing it lower means you are bored and anxious.
slide34

Playing with your tie means you are interested in the opposite sex.

  • Playing with notebook, paper etc. means you are bored.
touch
TOUCH

Touching is so important in the healthy development of human life.

touch1
TOUCH

Touching is a powerful communicative tooland serves to express a tremendous range of feelings, such as;

  • Fear
  • Love
  • Anxiety
  • Warmth
  • Coldness
slide37

Sometimes touching may elicit negative reactions depending on the configuration of people and circumstances.

  • Sometimes people get tense, anxious, and/or uncomfortable when touched.
who touches whom where and how much
Who Touches Whom, Where, and How Much?
  • The amount and kind of contact in adulthood vary considerably with
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Situation
  • Relationship of the parties involved.
slide39

Easy to touch

Hard to touch

slide40

We can say that people may be more likely to touch when;

  • Giving information or advice rather than askingfor it
  • Giving an order rather than responding to it
  • Asking a favor rather than agreeing to do one
  • Trying to persuade rather than being persuaded

5. The conversation is deep rather than casual

6. At a party rather than at work

7. Communicating excitement rather than receiving it from another

8. Receiving messages of worry from another rather than sending such messages

types of touch
Types of Touch
  • The Handshake.
  • The Body-Guide.
  • The Pat.
  • The Arm-Link.
  • The Shoulder Embrace.
  • The Full Embrace.
  • The Hand-in-Hand.
  • The Waist Embrace.
  • The Kiss.
  • The Hand-to-Head.
  • The Head-to-Head.
  • The Caress.
  • The Body Support.
  • The Mock-Attack.
self touching
SELF-TOUCHING
  • Some of self-touching behaviors are behavioral adaptations we make in response to certain learning situations.
  • A number of studies have indicated that self-touching is associated with situational anxiety or stress.
self touching1
SELF-TOUCHING
  • Another source of body-focused movements is cognitive (information-processing) demand.

YELLOW

RED

GREEN

BLUE

slide44
TIME

At first, TIME may seem an intangible thing but time is almost treated as a THING;

You gain time, waste it, spent it, save it, give it and take it.

Time is precious, time speaks…

slide45

Time influences our perceptions of people;

  • For example;
  • responsible people are “on time”
  • boring people talk “too long”
slide46

We perceive time in four different types:

1. Time as Location

“I don’t like eating dinner at 10p.m.”

2. Time as Duration

Anactivity can be perceived as boring and we perceive we have been there “forever”.

3. Time as Intervals

“It’s been too long since I’ve seen you”

4. Time as Patterns of Intervals

It determines our social rhythm – the regularity/irregularity of our lifes, our behaviors and routines.

men women in nonverbal communication
Men&Women in NonverbalCommunication

Are Men from Mars and Women from Venus?

a woman
A Woman…
  • speak an average of 8,000 words a day.
  • 2,000 vocal sounds,
  • 10,000 facial expressions, and other body language signals.

This gives her a daily average of more than 20,000 communications

a man
A Man…
  • uses just 4,000 words
  • 1,000 vocal sounds
  • makes a mere 2,000 body language signals

His daily average adds up to around 7,000 communications.

slide50
Women's nonverbal behavior is used to make personal connections.

While men's nonverbal communication tends to parallel behaviors associated with dominance and power.

kinesics body movement
KINESICS - body movement
  • use facial expression a lot to send and receive messages
  • use less and more restrained gestures
  • posture is more tense
  • attracted to those who smile more
kinesics body movement cont
KINESICS - body movement (cont.)
  • don't send or receive facial expressions as much
  • use gestures more
  • posture is more relaxed
  • more likely to interrupt speakers who are smiling
male and female postures
Male and Female Postures

Males show a dominant behaviour and body posture (staring, taking more space, legs apart, hands on hips)

male and female postures cont
Male and Female Postures (cont.)

Females show a submissive behaviour and body posture (lowering eyes, knees together).

oculesics eye contact gaze
OCULESICS - eye contact,gaze

Females;

  • rarely stare
  • engage in more eye contact while conversating
  • generally the first to avert eyes on initial gaze
oculesics eye contact gaze cont
OCULESICS - eye contact,gaze(cont.)

Males;

  • stare to challenge power or status
  • generally don't make as much eye contact
  • generally maintain initial gaze until other party averts eyes
haptics touch and the use of it
HAPTICS - touch and the use of it

Females;

  • touched more than males
  • touched more gently
  • touched mostly by men
  • initiate more hugging and touching that expresses support, affection, comfort
haptics touch and the use of it cont
HAPTICS - touch and the use of it (cont.)

Males;

  • touched less than females
  • touched more harshly
  • initiate touch towards females more
  • use touch to direct, assert power, express sexual interest
proxemics space and the use of it
PROXEMICS - space and the use of it

Females;

  • tend to approach others closer
  • prefer side by side interaction
proxemics space and the use of it cont
PROXEMICS - space and the use of it (cont.)

Males;

  • use more personal space
  • prefer face to face conversation
cultural differences in nonverbal communication
Cultural Differences in Nonverbal Communication

Nonverbal messages can create intercultural friction and confusion because;

  • the same nonverbal signal can mean different things to different people in different cultures,
  • multiple nonverbal cues are sent in each interaction, thereby creating interpretive ambiguities,
cultural value tendencies
Cultural value tendencies
  • individualism-collectivism
  • high-low context
  • power distance
collectivist and individulist cultures
Collectivist and Individulist Cultures

U.S

Individualist cultures

emphasize personal achievement

Sweden

Netherlands

collectivist and individulist cultures cont
Collectivist and Individulist Cultures (cont.)

Japan

Collectivist cultures

emphasize family and work group goals.

Argentina

Mexico

collectivist and individulist cultures cont1
Collectivist and Individulist Cultures (cont.)
  • individualists tend to be more concerned with expressing and repairing self-focused emotions (e.g., personal anger, frustration, or resentment)
  • collectivists generally are more concerned with other-focused emotions (e.g., relational shame, hurt, or embarrassment)
high and low context cultures
High and Low Context Cultures
  • Low–context cultures tend to be more sensitive to a person's values, attitudes or dispositional characteristics, and attribute behavior to their individuality and personality.
  • High–context communication and cultures are highly sensitive to situational and context features of communication .
high and low context cultures cont
High and Low Context Cultures (cont.)

Low–context cultures are less aware of nonverbal cues, environment, and situation

High context cultures are all take into account environment, situation, nonverbal messages, gestures, mood

large and small power distance cultures
Large and Small Power Distance Cultures

Small power distance cultures (e.g., Australia and Canada) tend to use nonverbal emotional cues to establish equal-status relationships.

Large power distance cultures (e.g., in many Latin and Middle Eastern cultures) tend to use nonverbal emotional cues (e.g., the proper tone of voice) to signify asymmetrical-status relationships

different nonverbal cues in different cultures
Different Nonverbal Cues in Different Cultures
  • Facial Expressions
  • Proximity
  • Haptics
  • Silence
  • Kinesics
  • Greetings
  • Beckoning
facial expressions
Facial Expressions

Basic facial emotions that are decoding universally:

  • anger,
  • disgust,
  • fear,
  • happiness,
  • sadness, and
  • surprise
facial expressions cont
Facial Expressions (cont.)
  • In many European and American cultures, people who are unable to maintain eye contact during a conversation are often looked upon as untrustworthy or rude.
  • In many Asian and African cultures it is considered disrespectful to look an elder or authority figure in the eyes during a conversation

Eye-contact;

facial expressions cont1
Facial Expressions (cont.)
  • Within the most European culture, a smile can mean joy or happiness
  • In the Japanese culture, it can also be used to mask embarrassment, hide displeasure, or suppress anger.
  • In Russia, it reflects relaxation and progress in developing a good relationship.

Smiles;

facial expressions cont2
Facial Expressions (cont.)
  • Many Southern European cultures (e.g., Greece and Italy) and Arab cultures tend to value an emotionally engaged, expressive tone of voice,
  • Many East and Southeast Asian cultures (e.g., Malaysia and Thailand) tend to value a moderating, soft tone of voice.

Voice;

proximity space
Proximity (space)
  • For Americans, standing very close to speak with someone is looked at as rude and can create a very awkward or uncomfortable feeling for many of them.
  • In Asia and the Middle East, people tend to stand or sit closer to one another while talking, and think nothing of their proximity to each other
haptics touching
Haptics (touching)
  • While Chinese views opposite-sex handshakes acceptable, Malays and Arabs view contact by opposite-sex handshakes as taboo
  • The friendly full embrace between males in much more acceptable in many Latin American cultures than in Britain or the United States
haptics touching cont
Haptics (touching)(cont.)

Don’t touchTouchMiddle Ground

Japan

U.S.&Canada

England

Scandinavia

Australia

Estonia

Middle East Countries

Latin Countries

Italy

Greece

Spain&Portugual

Russia

France

China

Ireland

India

silence1
Silence
  • In many cultures, people are more comfortable with longer pauses or periods of silence.
  • In the U.S., long pauses can become uncomfortable or may be indicative of that fact that someone is upset or choosing to ignore what has been said in the conversation.
kinesics hand gestures body postures
Kinesics-hand gestures, body postures

"Gestures are a silent language unique to every society."

hand gestures
Hand Gestures
  • “OK” to U.S. Americans and most of Europeans
  • “money” to the Japanese
  • a sexual insult in Brazil and Greece
  • a vulgar gesture in Russia
  • “zero” in French.
hand gestures cont
Hand Gestures (cont.)
  • The "V Sign", commonly known as"Victory"
  • However, in Britain the “V” sign connotes an insult.
hand gestures cont1
Hand Gestures (cont.)
  • In Canada and the United States, it signifies approval or encouragement
  • It is offensive throughout the Arab world (e.g., in Egypt and Kuwait)
  • In Japan it signifies “five”
  • In Germany it is the signal for “one”
hand gestures cont2
Hand Gestures (cont.)
  • In Italy this gesture has a vulgar meaning
  • In Brazil and Venezuela, the same gesture is considered a good luck sign toward off evil.
greetings
Greetings

India

“namaste”

It also means “thank you” and “I’m sorry”.

Japan

This bow is used to communicate respect when expressing gratitude or an apology.

greetins cont
Greetins (cont.)

New Zealand

The Maori tribespeople in New Zealand choose to greet each other with a gesture that shows closeness and friendship:

“They rub noses”

Latin America

“abrazo”

Most North Americans, Nothern Europeans find any such touching or hugging very uncomfortable.

beckoning
Beckoning
  • In the U.S., it is the common gesture for getting someone’s attention
  • In Japan, pointing the finger at anyone is considered impolite
  • In Germany, the signal means “two”
beckoning cont
Beckoning (cont.)
  • In some American countries, it is used for beckoning
  • In Yugoslavia and Malaysia, that gesture is used only for calling animals.
  • Most of Europe and Latin American countries prefer this gesture for signaling “come over here”
  • North Americans consider it uncomfortable, effeminate, or puzzling.
nonverbal communication in job interv ews
NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN JOB INTERVİEWS
  • Body language55%
  • Paralanguage or the intonation38%
  • The verbal content only7%
slide88

Nonverbal Communication During the Interview

  • Make eye contact with the interviewer for a few seconds at a time.
  • Smile and nod (at appropriate times) when the interviewer is talking, but, don't overdo it. Don't laugh unless the interviewer does first.
slide89

Be polite and keep an even tone to your speech. Don't be too loud or too quiet.

  • Don't slouch.
  • 5.Do relax and lean forward a little towards the interviewer so you appear interested and engaged.
  • Don't lean back. You will look too casual and relaxed.
  • Keep your feet on the floor and your back against the lower back of the chair.
slide90

Pay attention, be attentive and interested.

  • Listen.
  • Don't interrupt.
  • Stay calm. Even if you had a bad experience at a previous position or were fired, keep your emotions to yourself and do not show anger or frown.
  • Not sure what to do with your hands? Hold a pen and your notepad or rest an arm on the chair or on your lap, so you look comfortable. Don't let your arms fly around the room when you're making a point.
how to dress for an interview
How to Dress for an Interview?
  • Men's Interview Attire
  • Suit (solid color - navy or dark grey)
  • Long sleeve shirt (white or coordinated with the suit)
  • Belt
  • Tie
  • Dark socks, conservative leather shoes
  • Little or no jewelry
  • Neat, professional hairstyle
  • Limit the aftershave
  • Neatly trimmed nails
how to dress for an interview1
How to Dress for an Interview?
  • Women's Interview Attire
  • Suit (navy, black or dark grey)
  • The suit skirt should be long enough so you can sit down comfortably
  • Coordinated blouse
  • Conservative shoes
  • Limited jewelry (no dangling earrings or arms full of bracelets)
  • Professional hairstyle
  • Neutral pantyhose
  • Light make-up and perfume
  • Neatly manicured clean nails