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Chapter 2 The Grammar-Translation Method (GTM). Textbook: Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000). Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching . (2th ed.). Oxford University Press. Background. Classical Method - first used in teaching Latin and Greek - read and appreciate foreign literature

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chapter 2 the grammar translation method gtm

Chapter 2The Grammar-Translation Method(GTM)

Textbook:

Larsen-Freeman, D. (2000).Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. (2th ed.). Oxford University Press.

background
Background
  • Classical Method

- first used in teaching Latin and Greek

- read and appreciate foreign literature

  • The study of the grammar
  • Exercise mental muscle

- help students growing intellectually

objectives
Objectives
  • Memorizing verb forms, grammar rules, and vocabulary.
  • Ability to read the text (literature).
  • Translating from L1 to L2 and from L2 to L1.

(L1=native language / L2= target language)

  • To develop reading and writing skills.
  • Providing students good mental exercise.
observations
Observations
  • Reading classical texts at beginning.
  • Classes are taught in the native language.
  • Students need to translate from one language to another.
  • Much vocabulary is introduced in the form of lists of isolated words.
  • Emphasizing the written language.
  • Instruction focuses on the grammar rules.
characteristics
Characteristics
  • Literary language is superior to spoken language.
  • Successful learners = To translate each language into the other.
  • The primary skills are reading and writing.
  • To find native language equivalents for target language words.
  • To learn about the rules of TG.
  • Ss should memorize verb conjugations and forms.
teacher s role
Teacher’s Role
  • Traditional instructor.
  • The authority in the classroom.
  • What does the teacher do?

- explain

- translate

- conduct practices

- correct mistakes

learner s role
Learner’s Role
  • Do as the teacher says.
  • Learners interact with the teacher, not with each other.
  • What does the student do?

- translate

- study words and rules

- memorize

reviewing the principles

REVIEWING THE PRINCIPLES

Answering the ten questions

1 what are the goals of teachers who use the grammar translation method
1. What are the goals of teachers who use the Grammar-Translation Method?

*To be able to read literature

*To translate from one language to another

*To develop students’ minds

2 what is the role of the teacher what is the role of the students
2. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?
  • The teacher is the authority
  • The students do as the teacher says
3 what are some characteristics of the teaching learning process
3. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?
  • use the students’ native language
  • Translate from one language to another
  • Students study grammar deductively
  • Students memorize vocabulary and grammar rules
slide12
4.What is the nature of student-teacher interaction? What is the nature of student-student interaction?
  • Most of the interaction in the classroom is from the teacher to the students.
  • Little student-student interaction
6 how is the language viewed how is culture viewed
6. How is the language viewed?How is culture viewed?
  • Literary language is considered superior to spoken language.
  • Culture is viewed as consisting of literature and the fine arts.
7 what areas of language are emphasized what language skills are emphasized
7.What areas of language are emphasized? What language skills are emphasized?
  • Vocabulary and grammar
  • Reading and writing
8 what is the role of the students native language
8. What is the role of the students’ native language?
  • The language that is used in class is mostly the students’ native language.
9 how is evaluation accomplished
9. How is evaluation accomplished?

Written tests

1.  Translation

2.  Question about the target culture

3.  Questions about the application of grammar

10 how does the teacher respond to student errors
10. How does the teacher respond to student errors?
  • Having the students get the correct answer is considered very important.
reviewing the techniques 1
REVIEWING THE TECHNIQUES(1)
  • Translation of a literary passage
  • Reading comprehension questions
  • Antonyms/synonyms
  • Cognates:
  • Deductive application of rule
reviewing the techniques 2
REVIEWING THE TECHNIQUES(2)
  • Fill-in-the-blank
  • Memorization
  • Use words in sentences
  • Composition
cognates
Cognates
  • Spanish students learn that Spanish ‘-dad’ corresponds to ‘-ty’ of English as in realidad - reality.
deductive application of rule
Deductive application of rule
  • Grammar rule : two-word verbs-turn up wake up get on put away

John put away his book.

John put his book away./ John put it away.

memorization
memorization
  • Vocabulary item : ambition=野心;career=職業
  • Verb conjugation:drink drank drunk