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Marzano Instructional Model Overview

Marzano Instructional Model Overview

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Marzano Instructional Model Overview

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  1. Marzano Instructional Model Overview Toby Boss ESU 6

  2. Expert PerceptionsRichard Elmore • Education is a profession without a practice. • We haven’t developed a clear sense of what we do, and how it relates to our core mission. • It is no longer acceptable to say that teaching is a mysterious thing, that occurs idiosyncratically in every classroom. • We need a systematic answer to the question of how we do what we do.

  3. The Art & Science of Teaching 10 “design questions” teachers ask of themselves as they plan a unit of instruction.

  4. The Art and Science of Teaching Ten Design Questions – What will I do to: • establish and communicate learning goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? • help students effectively interact with new knowledge? • help students practice and deepen their understanding of new knowledge? • help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge? • engage students? • establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures? • recognize and acknowledge adherence and lack of adherence to classroom rules and procedures? • establish and maintain effective relationships with students? • communicate high expectations for all students? • develop effective lessons organized into a cohesive unit?

  5. Why do we need a common language of instruction? • Provides a method to talk about instruction • Provides a way to name, share and replicate strategies • Provides a framework for reflection and goal setting

  6. Presumptions • Teaching is complex • The model should be “robust” enough to capture this complexity – 41 strategies • Teachers need not do them all • Gains are incremental - get better at a few each year • Feedback using a common language of instruction is critical

  7. Lesson Segments • “Thin slices” of instruction • Those involving routines • Those involving content • Those enacted on the spot

  8. MRL Scales for Reflective Practice:General Scale • Innovating • New strategies are created to meet needs of specific students or class as a whole • Applying • Strategy is used and monitored to see if it has desired effect • Developing • Strategy is used but in a mechanistic way • Beginning • Strategy is used but pieces are missing • Not Using • Strategy is called for but not used

  9. Incremental Improvement • It takes deliberate practice to over the course of 10 years to be an expert • Teachers need not do all the strategies – not only one way to teach – it’s complex! • Choose one or two for improvement with deliberate practice • Goals for improvement should be set at appropriate stages (yearly, semester, quarter)

  10. The Art and Science of Teaching Learning Goals and Feedback Interacting with New Knowledge Practicing and Deepening Generating and Testing Hypotheses Student Engagement Establishing Rules and Procedures Adherence to Rules and Procedures Teacher-Student Relationships High Expectations Page 7, The Art & Science of Teaching

  11. The Art and Science of Teaching Student Engagement Teacher/Student Relationships Adherence to Rules and Procedures High Expectations ENACTED ON THE SPOT INVOLVES ROUTINES Learning Goals and Feedback Rules and Procedures ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS Interacting with New Knowledge Generating/ Testing Hypotheses Practicing and Deepening 11 Heflebower, Marzano Research Laboratory cutting-edge research concrete strategies sustainable success

  12. Lesson Segments • “Thin slices” of instruction • Those involving routines • Those involving content • Those enacted on the spot

  13. The Art and Science of Teaching Routine Segments INVOLVES ROUTINES Learning Goals and Feedback Rules and Procedures

  14. Routine Segments • Communicate learning goals • Track student progress • Celebrate success • Establish classroom rules and procedures • Organize the physical layout of the room

  15. Discuss • What are examples of routine segments from your practice? • How do you: • Communicate to students the learning goal? • Establish and teach procedures? • Provide feedback? • Celebrate? • Organize the room?

  16. The Art and Science of Teaching Content Segments ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS Interacting with New Knowledge Generating/ Testing Hypotheses Practicing and Deepening 16

  17. Content Segments • Interact with new knowledge • Practice and deepen content • Generate and test hypothesis

  18. The Art and Science of Teaching INVOLVES ROUTINES Learning Goals and Feedback Rules and Procedures ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS Interacting with New Knowledge

  19. Please think about the look fors… • Previewing activities • Info presented in small chunks • Students processing each chunk in small groups • Students summarizing and taking notes after content has been introduced • Students reflecting on their learning • Personal story shared

  20. The Art and Science of Teaching ENACTED ON THE SPOT Student Engagement INVOLVES ROUTINES Learning Goals and Feedback Rules and Procedures ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS Teacher/Student Relationships Adherence to Rules and Procedures Interacting With New Knowledge Generating/ Testing Hypotheses Practicing and Deepening High Expectations

  21. If the segment involves knowledge practice and deepening activities, what do you expect to see?

  22. Students Engaged in: • Practicing skills, strategies, and processes • Examining similarities and differences • Comparing/contrasting, • Classifying, • Creating analogies and metaphors • Identifying Errors in Thinking • Using homework • Guided and independent practice • Cooperative learning activities • Revising knowledge • Reviewing/revising notes so they are useful to students and add clarity to understanding.

  23. The Art and Science of Teaching ENACTED ON THE SPOT Student Engagement INVOLVES ROUTINES Learning Goals and Feedback Rules and Procedures ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS Teacher/Student Relationships Adherence to Rules and Procedures Interacting With New Knowledge Generating/ Testing Hypotheses Practicing and Deepening High Expectations

  24. Different Lessons and Expected Behaviors New Knowledge • Preview • Small chunks • Students process chunks. • Summarize and take notes. • Students reflect. Generating or Testing Hypotheses (application) • Brief review • Students work individually or in groups, applying content. • Teacher as facilitator/resource provider

  25. Moving to Application P. 14 • Effective support • Valid claims • qualifiers • Experimental inquiry • Problem-solving • Investigations • Decision-making

  26. ENACTED ON THE SPOT Student Engagement INVOLVES ROUTINES Learning Goals and Feedback Rules and Procedures ADDRESSES CONTENT IN SPECIFIC WAYS Teacher/Student Relationships Adherence to Rules and Procedures Interacting With New Knowledge Generating/ Testing Hypotheses Practicing and Deepening High Expectations

  27. Strategies Enacted on the Spot • Engagement (Q. 5) • Relationships (Q.8) • Recognizing Rules & Procedures (Q. 6-7) • High Expectations for All (Q. 9)

  28. Question 5: How to re-engage our students!

  29. An Old Proverb states: • You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make them drink. • We learned that maybe with “reward and punishment” the horse will do what ever we ask. • However, consider a different goal, “How can I make the horse thirsty?”

  30. Strategies to increase engagement P. 15 • Use of games • Inconsequential competition • Manage response rates • Physical movement • Effective pacing • Student interest • Demonstrating intensity and enthusiasm

  31. Strategies to increase engagement • Use of games • Inconsequential competition • Manage response rates • Physical movement • Effective pacing • Demonstrating intensity and enthusiasm

  32. Teachers asked an average of 50.6 questions; students posed only 1.8 questions in a 30 minute period. Susskind, E. (1979), Encouraging teachers to encourage children’s curiosity: A pivotal competence. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 8, 101-106.

  33. Research finding #1 Teachers ask many questions

  34. Implication: • Teachers should plan their questions before asking.

  35. Research Finding #2: Most teacher questions are at the lowest cognitive level—known as fact, recall, or knowledge. Sattes,B. & Walsh, J., (2005). Quality questioning research-based practice to engage every learner.

  36. Implication: • Teachers should purposefully plan and ask questions that require students to engage in higher-level thinking.

  37. Research finding #3: • Not all students are accountable to respond to all questions. • Teachers frequently call on volunteers, and these volunteers constitute a select group of students—especially in traditional settings. Sattes,B. & Walsh, J., (2005). Quality questioning research-based practice to engage every learner.

  38. Implication: • Teachers should establish classroom norms that every student deserves an opportunity to answer questions • All students’ answers are important.

  39. Try some procedures that get every child involved: • Use paired responses (A/B partner response). • Call on students randomly—Popsicle sticks with names on them. • Using response chaining. • Using choral responses. • Using quick draws. • Using hand signals (thumbs up/down). • Using response cards. • Using response technologies. (ASOT, pp. 71–74)

  40. Research finding #4: • Teachers typically wait less than 1 second after asking a question before calling on a student to answer. • They wait even less time before speaking after the student has answered Sattes,B. & Walsh, J., (2005).Quality questioning research-based practice to engage every learner.

  41. Implication: • Both wait times 1 and 2 promote student thinking and foster more students’ formulating answers to more questions.

  42. Research finding #5: Teachers often accept incorrect answers without probing; They frequently answer their own questions. Sattes,B. & Walsh, J., (2005). Quality questioning research-based practice to engage every learner.

  43. Implication: • Teachers should seek to understand incorrect or incomplete answers more completely by gently guiding student thinking with appropriate probes.

  44. Research finding #6: Students ask very few content-related questions. Sattes,B. & Walsh, J., (2005). Quality questioning research-based practice to engage every learner.

  45. Implications: • Value student questions • Help students learn to formulate good questions, and • Make time for student questions.

  46. From Passive to Active--Types of Questions Active Questioning, 1995

  47. From How many doors or windows in this room? What is square root of 16? Name the members of the United Nations. To What are the possible ways to get out of this room? List ways you can think to say “4” or “-4”? What concern would you take to the United Nations and why? Quantity Questions (Johnson, Active Questioning, 1995)

  48. Compare/Contrast Questions(move from concrete to abstract) • How is _________like__________? • How is ________different from_________? • Seeing/believing • Freedom/boundaries • Human brain/computer • Building a building/building a relationship • National Party/Labor Party • Use of analogies Classroom Instruction that Works, 2001

  49. How can I assess my questioning style? • Record a complete day of teaching • Review in privacy • For every right/wrong answer (convergent) type of question give yourself a check • For every divergent (multiple options) question, give yourself an X • Add the total of checks and Xs • How long did you wait for responses? • Hunter research 2.5 seconds—try 5 seconds or more. Questioning Makes the Difference, Johnson, 1990

  50. The Art and Science of Teaching Enacted on the Spot Student Engagement Involves Routines Learning Goals and Feedback Rules and Procedures Addresses Content in Specific Ways Teacher–Student Relationships Adherence to Rules and Procedures Interacting With New Knowledge Generating/ Testing Hypotheses Practicing and Deepening High Expectations