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CHINA PowerPoint Presentation

CHINA

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CHINA

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  1. CHINA

  2. GEOGRAPHY Natural Barriers served to ISOLATE China • PACIFIC Ocean - East • HIMALAYA / Tien Shan Mts. - West • GOBI Desert - North • Thick JUNGLES - South

  3. MIDDLE KINGDOM • ETHNOCENTRISM – Because of Isolation little contact with outsiders– felt culture was superior • MIDDLEKINGDOM– center of Earth

  4. TWO IMPORTANT RIVERS • HUANG HE (YELLOW) – early civilization started here • YANGTZE (CHANG) – 3rd largest river in the world

  5. EARLY CHINESE DYNASTIES • China was ruled by the DYNASTIC CYCLE • Rulers claimed to possess the:MANDATE OF HEAVEN • 1st Three Chinese Dynasties were: 1. XIA 2. SHANG 3. ZHOU

  6. QIN DYNASTY 221 B.C. – 206 B.C. • SHI HUANGDI – “FIRST RULER” • Used LEGALISM to rule - felt highly efficient and powerful government • LEGALISMwas the key to social order • Set up AUTOCRATIC GOVERNMENT – ruler had unlimited power • Opposed CONFUCIANISM (books supporting Confucius were burned) • Wanted to control ALL ideas of citizens

  7. QIN DYNASTY 221 B.C. – 206 B. C. • Built network of ROADS Tried to Standardize: • WRITING SYSTEM • LAWS • CURRENCY • WEIGHTS and MEASURES

  8. GREAT WALL OF CHINA • In the time of SHI HUANGDI, hundreds of thousands of peasants collected, hauled, and dumped millions of tons of stone, dirt, and rubble to fill the core of the GREAT WALL of CHINA

  9. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_CJ3U_TJ5dk

  10. HAN DYNASTY 206 B.C. – A.D. 220 • FOUNDER – LIU BANG • Most Important Ruler – WUDI {Liu Bang’s great grandson} ruled 141B.C. - 87B.C. • EstablishedCIVIL SERVICE SYSTEM: Examinations Based on teachings of CONFUCIUS determined Government Jobs • Expanded Empire through WAR • Highly Structured Society – each knew his role

  11. HAN DYNASTY Accomplishments • Invented PAPER – out of Wood Pulp 105 A.D. • Wheelbarrow, rudder (steering ships) • Fishing reel, collar harness for horses • Developed ACUPUNCTURE

  12. SILK ROAD • Started during HANDynasty • TRADE Routes linking China with the “WEST” • 4000 Miles Long • Spread Goods, Ideas, Religion, Culture

  13. SILK ROAD • Not Only Silk -many other goods were traded, and various technologies, religions and philosophies, as well as the BUBONICplague ("Black Death")

  14. END OF HAN DYNASTY • INEFFECTIVE rulers after Wudi • High TAXES • Poor Treatment of PEASANTS • Failure to keep up infrastructure (roads/canals) • Warlords Overthrow weakened Military

  15. SUI DYNASTY 589 - 618 • Main Accomplishment – GRAND CANAL Linking Yellow / Yangtze Rivers

  16. TANG DYNASTY 618 -907SONG DYNASTY 960 -1279 Characteristics: • EFFICIENT Government • Trade & Farming Flourished • Advances in literature, art, architecture • CULTURE Spreads to Japan

  17. TANG DYNASTY 618 -907SONG DYNASTY 960 -1279 • CONFUCIANIST beliefs guided gov’t & society • Revived CIVIL Service System • Strict SOCIAL order – 3 classes: 1. GENTRY – educated wealthy landowners 2. PEASANTS – most people, farmers 3. MERCHANTS – wealth came from others Women – lower status than men (EX: FOOT BINDING)

  18. FOOT BINDING

  19. TANG DYNASTY 618 -907SONG DYNASTY 960 -1279 Many Achievements: • MOVABLE TYPE • GUNPOWDER • PORCELAIN • MAGNETIC COMPASS • PAPER MONEY • MECHANICAL CLOCK

  20. END OF SONG DYNASTY • MONGOLS CONQUER SONG establish YUAN DYNASTY (1271 – 1368)

  21. MING DYNASTY 1368 - 1644 • Chinese overthrow the MONGOLSin mid-1300’s {Self-rule restored to China} • New Dynasty created - MING • Ming China – ECONOMIC & CULTURAL revival • Founder/First Emperor – HONGWU

  22. MING IMPROVEMENTS AGRICULTURE – better fertilization, new crops TRADE – repaired canals INDUSTRY – tool making, porcelain, paper GOVERNMENT – Civil Service System brought back, Confucianism returned

  23. YONGLO – Hongwu’s son • Wanted to expand Chinese Influence • 1405-1433: sponsored 7 Voyages of Exploration (contact w/Europeans) • All 7 led by: ZHENG HE • Established trade links with areas from Southeast Asia to eastern Africa ZHENG HE

  24. ZHENG HE • Established Contacts with lands outside China Brought back EXOTIC animals and products

  25. ZHENG HE • Expeditions had from 40 – 300 huge ships • Crews of up to 27,000 men

  26. END OF EXPLORATION • MING Emperors after death of ZHENG HE stop voyages • Felt they were too EXPENSIVE • Brought back little in return for cost • Zheng’s ships are BURNED • Building of large ships is BANNED by emperor

  27. MING ISOLATION Another reason for ending exploration: • China wanted to LIMIT contacts with foreigners • Did not trust outsiders/MISSIONARIES • Only the government was allowed to conduct FOREIGN trade

  28. FORBIDDEN CITY • YONGLO moved Capital to BEIJING • Built Great Palace Complex: Took 14 years (1406-1420) = “FORBIDDEN CITY” • Commoners/Foreigners not allowed in

  29. END OF MING DYNASTY Ming ruled for over 200 years But problems in 1600’s: • INEFFECTIVE RULERS • CORRUPT OFFICIALS • HIGH TAXES • POOR HARVESTS • STARVATION • REBELLION

  30. QING DYNASTY 1644-1912 • MANCHUS overthrow the MING – set up QING DYNASTY • Last Dynasty of China • Continue policy of Isolation • China reaches greatest size & prosperity