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Sri Lanka’s Wildlife Policy & the Legal Framework. Madhawa Tennakoon Senior State Counsel Attorney General’s Department Sri Lanka. ADB-CITES Symposium on Combating Wildlife Crime 10-12 March 2013 Queen Sirikit National Convention Center-Bangkok, Thailand. Sri Lanka – overview.

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sri lanka s wildlife policy the legal framework

Sri Lanka’s Wildlife Policy& the Legal Framework

Madhawa Tennakoon

Senior State Counsel

Attorney General’s Department

Sri Lanka

ADB-CITES Symposium on Combating Wildlife Crime

10-12 March 2013 Queen Sirikit National Convention Center-Bangkok, Thailand

sri lanka overview
Sri Lanka – overview
  • Island - 65 610 sq km
  • 20 Million Population
  • Forest cover 22%
  • 501 protected areas
  • Endemism- 16% fauna & 23% flowering plants
  • Over 30 related legislation
  • A biodiversity hot spot
international conventions
International Conventions
  • Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Fauna and flora (CITES)
  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
  • Convention  on Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Convention)
  • United Nations Framework convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) 
  • Convention  on the Conservation of  Migratory Species of Wild animals (CMS)
international conventions1
International Conventions…..
  • Convention  for Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 
  • International Plant Protection Convention  (IPPC)
  • International  Convention  for the Preservation of pollution of the sea by oil
  • United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Those Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa (UNCCD)
fauna and flora protection ordinance ffpo
Fauna and Flora Protection Ordinance (FFPO)
  • Introduced in 1937
  • “to provide for the protection, conservation and preservation of the fauna and flora and for the prevention of commercial exploitation of such fauna and flora……………………………………………………..”
  • Amendment 2009 – a wider approach
  • “to provide for the protection and conservation of the fauna and flora of Sri Lanka and their habitat; for the prevention of commercial and other misuse of such fauna and flora and their habitats, for the conservation of the biodiversity of Sri Lanka…………………………”
key features of ffpo
Key Features of FFPO
  • Protected Areas
  • Protected Species
  • Importation of animals regulated
  • Exportation of animals/parts regulated
  • Special provisions related to Elephants
  • Rights based on customs, usage & Traditional Practices are saved
protected areas species
Protected Areas & Species
  • National Reserves (State Land)
    • Strict Natural Reserves
    • National Parks
    • Nature Reserve
    • Jungle Corridor
    • Refuge
    • Marine National Parks
    • Buffer Zone 1
  • Sanctuaries /Managed Elephant Reserves (State or Private Land)
  • Eight lists of species & Special Protection for Elephants
recent developments in the law
Recent Developments in the Law
  • Public Interest Litigation
  • Certain offences to be non-bailable
  • Power of entry without a search warrant
  • Elephant Pregnancies, Births, Miscarriages, Still Births, Deaths to be notified (within 7 days)
  • Elephants unregistered presumed to be taken/ removed from wild & to be Public Property.
  • Inclusion of a Negative list of Amphibians
  • Environmental Impact Assessment necessary before changing protected area boundaries
  • Introduction of Managed Elephant Reserves and Marine National Parks
challenges
Challenges
  • Post War Rehabilitation & Development
  • Increase in Tourism
  • Rehabilitation of Infrastructure
  • Human Elephant Conflict (66:252)
    • Increased Demand for Elephants for Domestication
    • Cultural Connotations of Ivory
    • Increased popularity as a Transit Hub ?