Introduction to wildlife management
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Introduction to Wildlife Management. Greg Yarrow Associate Professor of Wildlife Clemson University February 4, 2003. What We’ll Cover Tonight …. Origin & purpose of wildlife management Management terms & strategies Developing & implementing a wildlife management plan.

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Introduction to wildlife management

Introduction to Wildlife Management

Greg Yarrow

Associate Professor of Wildlife

Clemson University

February 4, 2003


What we ll cover tonight
What We’ll Cover Tonight …

  • Origin & purpose of wildlife management

  • Management terms & strategies

  • Developing & implementing a wildlife management plan


Defining wildlife
Defining Wildlife . . .

  • Out of direct control of man

  • Undomesticated plants & animals

  • Focus has been on birds & mammals


Historical
Historical . . .

  • Unregulated harvests

  • Lack of habitat needs

  • No management

  • Some species in trouble


Historical1
Historical . . .

  • Game Management by Aldo Leopold (1933)

  • Federal & state game laws enacted

  • Wildlife officers

  • Pittman - Robertson Act (1937)


Wildlife management process
Wildlife Management Process . . .

  • Manipulating habitat

  • Manipulating animal populations

  • Managing people

  • For the benefit of people


Approaches to wildlife management
Approaches to Wildlife Management . . .

  • Preservation

  • Active Management

    • Manage for variety of species

    • Manage for featured species


Approaches to wildlife management1
Approaches to Wildlife Management . . .

  • Scale of Management

    • Forest stand / farm basis, individual ownership

    • Landscape level, multiple ownerships


Successful wildlife management understand
Successful Wildlife Management . . .Understand

  • Biology & life history of animal

  • Habitat needs

  • How to provide needs through management

  • Impact of management activities


Lands Must Provide. . .

Food

Cover

Water

Space

How these habitat components are arranged across the landscape is important.


Arrangement of habitat components
Arrangement of Habitat Components

  • Managing for interspersion or mixing of multiple stand / habitat types

  • Forest vegetative structure

    • Horizontal habitat diversity

    • Vertical habitat diversity


Forest layers creates vertical diversity
Forest Layers Creates Vertical Diversity

Over story

Mid story

Shrub

Herb

Forest floor


Managing Habitat Succession

Using select

practices to

alter

succession to

favor wildlife.


Important Habitat Features

  • Edge & ecotones

  • Edge-adapted wildlife

    • many game species

    • also some forest interior species


Important habitat features
Important Habitat Features

  • Headquarters (also called coverts)

    • 3 or more habitat types meet

  • Unbroken mature forests

    • forest interior species


Importance of dead wood to wildlife
Importance of Dead Wood to Wildlife

  • Snags

  • Provides denning & nesting cavities

  • Provides source of insects

  • Fallen snags become logs


Importance of Dead Wood to Wildlife . . .

  • Fallen trees & logs

  • Fungi/mushrooms

  • Insects

  • Recycle nutrients

  • Microhabitat for plant growth


Importance of dead wood to wildlife1
Importance of Dead Wood to Wildlife . . .

  • Logging debris, slash, windrows

  • Provide cover for wildlife

  • Provide travel corridors


Importance of dead wood to wildlife2
Importance of Dead Wood to Wildlife . . .

  • Soil & seed accumulation produce wildlife foods

  • Leave these areas & don’t burn

  • Brush pile management


Forest wildlife management
Forest Wildlife Management

  • At the stand level

    • Usually individual forest owners

  • At the landscape level

    • Across multiple ownerships


Wildlife management at the forest stand level
Wildlife Management at the Forest Stand Level . . .

What determines the value of a forest stand for wildlife?

  • Productive capacity of the land (site index, soil and other factors)

  • Vegetative composition and structure of forest stand


Wildlife management at the forest stand level1
Wildlife Management at the Forest Stand Level . . .

What determines the value of a forest stand for wildlife?

  • Wildlife habitat requirements

  • Past and current stand management


Forestry practices that affect wildlife habitat
Forestry Practices that Affect Wildlife Habitat . . .

  • Forest harvest and regeneration

  • Site preparation

  • Intermediate stand treatments

  • Other practices



Forest harvest regeneration
Forest Harvest & Regeneration conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Even-aged forests

    • clearcutting

    • seed tree harvest

    • shelterwood harvest

    • most stages of plant succession

    • allows for horizontal habitat diversity across the landscape


Forest harvest regeneration1
Forest Harvest & Regeneration conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Uneven-aged forests

    • group selection harvest

    • individual tree selection harvest

    • vertical habitat diversity from multiple canopies


Forest harvest regeneration2
Forest Harvest & Regeneration conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Uneven-aged forests

    • diversity of tree species, ages, and sizes

    • retains more mature trees and snags


Clearcutting
Clearcutting conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • valuable for many species if shape, size and distribution taken into account

  • increases horizontal diversity, decreases vertical diversity

  • vary seedling spacing during replanting


Seed tree
Seed Tree conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Wildlife benefits similar to clearcuts

  • Same guidelines as clearcutting for size, shape, and arrangement of harvests


Shelterwood
Shelterwood conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Greatest flexibility in providing both vertical and horizontal habitat diversity

  • Requires multiple entries


Group individual tree selection
Group & Individual Tree Selection . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Closest to duplicating natural plant succession

  • Creates small openings and maximizes vertical diversity

  • Care must be taken not to turn in to high grading


Site Preparation Influences on Wildlife Habitat conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Technique used

  • Intensity

  • Timing


Mechanical . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

Sheering vegetation & piling debris, root raking, burning, drum-chopping, disking & bedding


Mechanical . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Intensive temporarily favors herbaceous plants, reduces woody plants

  • Browse & fruits recover more quickly after using fire


Chemical . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • herbicides used in site prep & intermediate stand treatments

    • can be effective in selecting against unwanted wildlife plants

    • more work to come on use of herbicides as a wildlife management tool


Intermediate forest stand practices
Intermediate Forest Stand Practices . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected..

  • Pre-commercial thinning

    • provides openings for native wildlife plants


Intermediate forest stand practices1
Intermediate Forest Stand Practices . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected..

  • Commercial thinning

    • significantly increases sunlight

    • stimulates plant growth

    • benefits enhanced with prescribed burning


Intermediate Stand Practices . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Prescribed burning

    • herbaceous plant growth

    • increases nutritional level & palatability of some plants

    • increases insect abundance


Intermediate forest stand practices2
Intermediate Forest Stand Practices . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected..

  • Timber (wildlife) stand releases

    • remove poor trees with little value for timber or wildlife


Intermediate forest stand practices3
Intermediate Forest Stand Practices . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected..

  • Forest Fertilization

    • industrial timber lands

    • may stimulate production of some wildlife plants, repress others like legumes

    • need more research


Habitat Improvements for Wildlife . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Forest Openings


Habitat Improvements for Wildlife . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Riparian/hard-wood corridors

  • Streamside management zones (SMZs)

  • Corridors between unharvest stands


Habitat Improvements for Wildlife conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

Identify & retain mast trees & shrubs

  • both soft & hard mast


Habitat Improvements for Wildlife . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Firebreaks

    • native & planted foods

  • Woods roads

    • daylighting, native & planted foods


Habitat Improvements for Wildlife . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Fertilize honeysuckle patches

    • 1/4 acre patches 500 lbs. lime, 75 lbs. 13-13-13 in April & Sept./Oct.


Habitat improvements for wildlife
Habitat Improvements for conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.Wildlife . . .

  • Fertilize select oaks to increase acorn production

    • pelleted or liquid nitrogen fertilizer under canopy at 6/lbs/1000 sq. ft. applied after heavy frost every 3-5 years apply 12-6-6 or 12-12-12 same rate


Habitat improvements for wildlife1
Habitat Improvements for Wildlife . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Maintaining & managing existing openings

  • Retain old home sites


Habitat improvements for wildlife2
Habitat Improvements for Wildlife . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Protect unique areas

    • micro-habitats (beaver ponds, coves)


Vernal ponds
Vernal Ponds conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Hold water in winter & spring

  • Dry during summer

  • High organic matter

  • High invertebrates


Wetlands (wet areas, seeps, springs) conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

Need not be large

Need not be wet all the time

Many unusual plants & animals

Protect if possible

Pitcher Plant


Caves clifflines
CAVES & CLIFFLINES conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Surrounding forest important foraging areas for bats

  • Habitat for rare wildlife & plants


Glades rocky outcroppings
Glades, Rocky Outcroppings conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Cedar glade

  • Granite outcrops

  • Mid-Appalachian shale barrens

  • High-elevation outcrops & barrens

  • Limestone slope glades


Major Granite Rock Outcrops in the Southeast conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

Adapted from Murdy

(1966 & Quarterman

et al (1993)


Cedar Glades conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

From Baskin & Baskin 1999


Hedgerows
Hedgerows conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Fast growing woody & herbaceous plants

  • Provide food & cover

  • Dogwoods, wild plums, blackberry, grasses & legumes, others

  • Managed by cutting, mowing, disking or burning


Field border strips
Field Border Strips conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Unplanted strips (20 feet wide) around field edges

  • Mixture of native grasses

  • Plant in grasses/legumes

  • Leave several rows of unharvested crops


Tillage practices
Tillage Practices conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Practices that conserve soil & moisture

  • Clean tillage encourages soil erosion, reduces wildlife food & cover

  • Leave unplowed areas

  • If fall plowing is necessary, leave unplowed borders & strips


Herbicides
Herbicides conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Selective use

  • Refrain from use in borders & strips

  • Use in bands or spot treatments

  • Use selectively to “release” wildlife friendly plants from competition


Marginal crop land
Marginal Crop Land conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Take marginal lands out of crop production & reserve for wildlife


Other farm wildlife considerations
Other Farm Wildlife Considerations conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Maintain high value habitats

  • Protect fruit-producing trees & shrubs

  • Plant or maintain borders of waterways

  • Breakup fields


Landscape considerations for wildlife
Landscape Considerations for Wildlife . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected..

  • Mixture of vertical & horizontal habitats across the landscape

  • Maximize habitat diversity with differences between forest stands

    • mosaic of even & uneven-aged stands

    • adjacent even-aged stands of different ages


Landscape considerations for wildlife1
Landscape Considerations for Wildlife . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected..

  • Forest stands that provide habitat needs should be within home range of wildlife species

  • Connectivity with corridors


Monitoring revision of wildlife management activities
Monitoring & Revision of Wildlife Management Activities conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

1. Monitor results of management

2. Re-evaluate objectives

3. Incorporate new knowledge

4. Modify practices to enhance habitat

5. Revise management plan


Landowner Assistance Programs conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

for Wildlife Management

  • Technical Assistance

  • Educational Assistance

  • Financial (cost-sharing) assistance


Wildlife management assistance
Wildlife Management Assistance conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • State wildlife agency

  • State forestry commission

  • University cooperative extension service

  • USDA Natural Resource Conservation Service


Wildlife management assistance1
Wildlife Management Assistance conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • US Fish & Wildlife Service

  • USDA Wildlife Services

  • Consultants (biologists/foresters)

    • Certified Wildlife Biologist (TWS)

    • Registered Forester (SAF)


Cost sharing assistance programs
Cost-Sharing Assistance Programs conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Wildlife Habitat Incentives Program (NRCS)

  • Forest Land Enhancement Program (Forestry Commission)

  • Partners for Fish & Wildlife (USFWS)


Cost sharing assistance programs1
Cost-Sharing Assistance Programs conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Wetlands Reserve Program (NRCS)

  • Environmental Quality Incentives Program (NRCS)

  • NRCS web site http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/programs/farmbill/2002/index.html


Final Thoughts . . . conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.

  • Know habitat needs of wildlife

  • Know land practices that improve habitat

  • Conserve & protect “unique” areas

  • Think about how your land &

  • management fit into the surrounding landscape


Prepared by the extension wildlife program department of forest resources clemson university
Prepared by conducted, valuable & unique habitat components should be inventoried, marked, and protected.the Extension Wildlife Program,Department of Forest Resources,Clemson University

Select photographs and sketches are from Managing Wildlife, Yarrow & Yarrow (1999), Sweetwater Press & The Alabama Wildlife Federation; and Managing Our Wildlife Resources, Anderson (1999) , Prentice Hall.


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