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Sri Lanka. M Azath S Salley Deputy Mayor of Colombo Sri Lanka. Basic Data. Environment conditions in cities. Conditions are different depending on the location Colombo High Density population Vertical expansion Green City Was a planned city Surrounded by waterways Problems

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sri lanka
Sri Lanka

M Azath S Salley Deputy Mayor of Colombo

Sri Lanka

environment conditions in cities
Environment conditions in cities
  • Conditions are different depending on the location
  • Colombo
      • High Density population
      • Vertical expansion
      • Green City
      • Was a planned city
      • Surrounded by waterways
      • Problems
        • Solid Waste Management
        • Air Pollution
        • Water Pollution
        • Land Pollution
        • Sound Pollution
environment of the cities in the hills
Environment of the cities in the hills……..
  • Kandy
      • A city in the hills
      • Man-made Lake


        • Traffic Congestion
        • Air Pollution
        • High population density
        • Pollution of the Lake
        • Solid Waste disposal
        • No space for development
  • Nuwaraeliya
    • Tea Estates
    • Tourist destination
    • Issues
        • - Soil erosion, Solid waste management, unplanned constructions
environment in the ancient cities

Ancient Capital

Well planned 2000 years ago


Unauthorised structures

Environmental pollution

Solid Waste Management

Communicable Diseases

Environment in the Ancient cities……….
cities on the shore line
Cities on the shore-line
  • Galle
  • Hikkaduwa
      • Issues
        • Destruction of the cultural heritage
        • Pollution of the sea by oil spillage from boats
        • Unauthorised coral mining
        • Air pollution due to burning of coral
        • Sea erosion
        • Increased traffic
types of urban slums
Types of urban slums
  • Poor Settlements
  • Un-serviced Settlements
  • Upgraded Settlements
  • Fully Upgraded Settlements
action taken on creation of a national policy on improvement of slums
Action taken on creation of a National Policy on Improvement of Slums
  • Enactment of Ceiling on Housing Property Law-1979-Introduction of housing rights of urban poor
  • Establishment of Common Amenities Board-to improve basic amenities in slums
  • Establishment of UDA
  • Establishment of National Housing Development Authority
measures taken to improve slums
Measures taken to Improve slums
  • Environment and community Development Projects in Colombo
  • UNICEF Assisted Urban Basic Services Project, 1984-1993
  • Slum and Shanty improvement Programme of UDA, 1978-1984
  • Hundred Thousand Houses and One million Houses Programme, 1978-1989
  • Establishment of Real Estate Exchange Limited (REEL) Programme
  • Urban Renewal Programme of UDA/NHDA
  • Urban settlements Improvement Programme (USIP)
  • Allocation of funds to Councilors e.g. Colombo MC
state of the environment and new initiatives in colombo
State of the Environment and New Initiatives in Colombo

Azath Salley

Deputy Mayor of Colombo

Sri Lanka

introduction to colombo
Introduction to Colombo
  • Population-642,000
  • Floating population-500,000
  • 37.3 sq. km
  • Commercial & Port city
  • All leading establishments are situated
  • Administered by the Colombo Municipal Council
state of the environment
State of the Environment
  • Rapid urbanisation
  • Unplanned and unauthorised constructions
  • Increased vehicular traffic
  • Air pollution
  • Pollution of waterways
  • Problems with Sanitation and Solid Waste Management
the under serviced area
The Under-serviced Area
  • 1614 poor settlements
  • On Government, Corporation, Municipal, Private Sector Lands.
  • > 50% of population (350,000) in 6% Land
  • Marginalized lands.
  • >300 settlements along the waterways
problems in slum areas
Problems in slum areas








Drug abuse


Food Sanitation

slums housing

Mostly unauthorized

Schemes, shanties

Small space 1-2.2 perches

More than one family (10-15 members)

Poor ventilation

Cooking in the same room



Polluted underground water

Large numbers per point source

Lack of Storage Facilities



No proper disposal

Canal as a source

 No proper toilets – high water table & ground conditions

 Septic tank overflow

 Not adequate to meet the demand  



Conflicts- family, neighbours



Communicable diseases-Dengue Fever

Nutritional problems-stunting

10% anaemic mothers

Underweight children-40%

Indoor air pollution

Stress related diseases


  • Women unemployed
  • Domestic violence
  • No organisation for women
  • Suicides
  • Underage marriages
drug abuse
Drug Abuse

Teenagers, youth





Needs a sustainable effort


Poor educational facilities

Lack of certificates to prove residence

Malnourished children



food sanitation
Food Sanitation

Poor quality of food

Poor preparation

Inadequate facilities

Inadequate supply of clean water

Poor storage facilities

Unauthorised eating houses-around 400

innovative action
Innovative action
  • Withdrawal of common taps to reduce Non Revenue Water
  • Improvement of sanitary facilities under the GTZ Project
  • Poverty Reduction Project of DFID/UNCHS
  • Green Star Home Project-Creation of Homes with a friendly outdoor environment
  • Green Settlements Project- to improve the environment in settlements lining the canals
innovative action26
Innovative Action……….

Improvement of Solid Waste Collection

Distribution of Plastic Bins

Low-cost sanitation projects for areas without sewerage facilities

Women’s Development

Capacity Building in Leadership

Involvement in Economic Activities

Thrift societies/loan schemes

Prevention of Domestic Violence


Assistance to create an Environment Policy for Local Government

Updating of Environment Profile

Identifying Priorities

Action Planning on

Air Pollution

Pollution of waterways

Solid Waste & Waste Water Management

Reducing sound pollution

Upgrading of slum areas

Removal of unauthorised structures