Ancient Historical Egypt - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ancient Historical Egypt

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  1. Ancient Historical Egypt Pre-dynastic Egypt(5500-3100 BC) Ennead (Nine Gods) Ra (Re), Amun Tefnut, Shu Nut, Geb

  2. Pre-dynastic Egypt(5500-3100 BC) • Ennead (continued) • Osiris • Isis • Seth • Nephthys • Horus

  3. Gift of the Nile • Fertile Silt • Available Water • Multiple Harvests • Akhet: July-October • Peret: November-February • Shemu: March-June

  4. White and Blue Nile

  5. Domestication • Walled city @ Naqada ~3600 BC • Pets-cats

  6. Natural Defenses • Deserts • Cataracts • Nomadic Tribes

  7. Last Pre-dynastic Period(3400-3100 BC) • Northern (Lower) Egypt • Nile Delta • Land of Papyrus • Southern (Upper) Egypt • Nile Valley • Land of Reeds • Distinct ecologies, gods, pottery

  8. Early Dynastic Period(3100-2650 BC) • Manetho: commissioned by Ptolemy II • Narmer (Menes) • Narmer Palette: no perspective, size=importance • Hieraconpolis (Horus) and Naqada (Seth) • Memphis • Capital of Unified Egypt • Juncture between Valley and Delta

  9. Narmer Palette

  10. Early Dynastic Period(continued) • Burial Customs • Mud-brick Chambers • More Elaborate • Embalming: @ Abydos, also @ Saqq ara

  11. Old Kingdom(2650-2152 BC) • King-Divine Heir of Sun God (Ra) • White Crown – Upper Egypt (south) • Red Crown – Lower Egypt (north) • King’s Wife-One who unites (Ra impregnates) • Royal Court • Afterlife • King’s Ka goes to Ra • Officials accompany King for service

  12. White Crown, Red Crown

  13. Double Crown, Nemes

  14. Third Dynasty(2675-2625 BC) • Mastabas • King Djoser • Step Pyramid @ Saqqara • First large stone monument in history • House of Eternity • One of 70 extant pyramids • Imhotep: Architect and God

  15. Fourth Dynasty (2625-2500 BC) • Sneferu • Khufu (Cheops): Great Pyramid • Khafre (Chephren): middle Giza pyramid, with some casing on top; appears slightly higher than Great Pyramid • Menkaure (Mycerinus): Third Giza Pyramid

  16. Giza Pyramid Complex

  17. Khafre (Chefren)Pyramid and Complex

  18. Fifth Dynasty (2465-2323 BC) • Cult of Sun God Ra • Temple building • Priestly class • Sun Temples, Obelisks • Provincial Nobles • King’s authority declines • Judged on own merit, direct to Osiris

  19. First Intermediate Period(2150-2040 BC) • Drought, raids? • Heracleopolis • Heirs to Memphite kings • Thebes (Luxor) • Southern expansion to Nubia (Sudan) • Power Struggle for “Two Egypts”?

  20. Middle Kingdom(2040-1759 BC) • 2007-1956 BC • 1938-1909 BC • Stability and Expansion • Fayum-oasis, perfume? • Nubia-gold, copper, semi-precious stones, exotic animals • Expeditions: Asia, Crete

  21. Middle Kingdom(continued) • Ethic of Ma’at • Harmony through justice • Right living • Writing • Administrative-hieratic • Religious-hieroglyphic • Religion: Ra, Amun, Osiris (judge)

  22. New Kingdom(1539-1075 BC) • Thutmose (Tutmoses) III • Nice Tomb choice • Hatshepsut (1479-1458) • Daughter of Thutmose I • Wife of Thutmose II • Deir el-Bahri • Thutmose IV

  23. Art: Menkaure 2520 BC

  24. Art: Akhenaten 1340 BC

  25. New Kingdom(continued) • Ramesses II (the Great) • Ramesses III - unfinished tomb • Ramesses IV – tomb was “home” to Champollion • Cleopatra VII – first of Ptolemys to speak Egyptian dialect, alliance with Julius Caesar