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Cellular Respiration. All living things need energy Energy in the form of… Food =chemical energy Cell energy= ATP. Eukaryote vs Prokaryote Glycolytic pathways. Prokaryotes . Lack mitochondria?? Free enzymes break down glucose-ATP 1 glucose=2 ATP No O2 needed so… ANAEROBIC

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Cellular respiration l.jpg
Cellular Respiration

  • All living things need energy

  • Energy in the form of…

  • Food=chemical energy

  • Cell energy=ATP


Eukaryote vs prokaryote glycolytic pathways l.jpg
Eukaryote vs Prokaryote Glycolytic pathways


Prokaryotes l.jpg
Prokaryotes

  • Lack mitochondria??

  • Free enzymes break down glucose-ATP

  • 1 glucose=2 ATP

  • No O2 needed so…

  • ANAEROBIC

  • Some,however…???


Quiz anaerobic gylcolysis l.jpg

Where in the cell does gylcolysis occur?

Fate of glucose in the beginning of gylcolysis?

Explain “it takes energy to make energy”??

How much net ATP is made?

What else is made?

2 types of fermentation?

Cytoplasm

Fructose (isomer)

Invest 2 ATP get 4

Net= 2 ATP

CO2 + NADH

Lactate or alcohol

Quiz-anaerobic gylcolysis


Mitochondrial structure l.jpg
Mitochondrial structure

  • Two compartments inner and outer

  • Inner=MATRIX

  • Lotsa folds=…why?

  • Outer=acid…why?


The mitochondria l.jpg
The Mitochondria

  • Double membrane

  • Has it’s own DNA!!

  • Can reproduce in cell…!

  • Endosymbiont??

  • Possible evolution?



The fate of pyruvate l.jpg
The Fate of PYRUVATE

  • Taken into mitochondria

  • Broken down to ACETATE

  • CO2 produced

  • Binds to large protein Coenzyme A toproduce acetyl Coenzyme A


The tca or krebs cycle l.jpg
The TCA or KREBS CYCLE

  • CO2

  • NADH & FADH

  • 2 more ATP



Quiz krebs cycle tca cycle l.jpg

What are the reactants?

What is produced?

What do we mean by nonmembrane reactions?

What is NADH? FADH?

What is CoA and why is it important?

Pyruvate (C3)

2 ATP, CO2, NADH, FADH

Enzymes not embedded

Energy carriers

Escort molecule to Krebs cycle

Quiz-Krebs cycle (TCA cycle)


3 rd alternative pathway l.jpg
3rd alternative pathway…

  • Mitochondria and

  • O2 needed

  • Uses NADH and FADH produced in previous reactions

  • To make more ATP

  • Lots more!!


Slide28 l.jpg

NADH

FAHD


What is nadh fadh l.jpg
What is NADH?? FADH??

  • ENERGY CARRIER!

  • Same forFADH

  • Carrier to…?


Electron transport system l.jpg
Electron Transport System

  • ETS (cytochrome chain) is a series of reduction/oxidation reactions

  • Enzymes embedded in mitochondrial membranes


Ets chemiosmosis l.jpg
ETS--Chemiosmosis

  • RedOx reactions pump H+ out of matrix to…

  • Outer compartment

  • H+ = acid…aha!


Chemiosmosis l.jpg
Chemiosmosis

  • H+ can only “fall” back into matrix thru

  • A special enzyme/protein complex

  • ATP SYNTHASE…guess what that makes??

  • But…how much ATP??




Slide37 l.jpg

ETS makes

how much ATP??



Slide40 l.jpg

cytoplasm

mitochondria


Alternatives to carbos l.jpg
Alternatives to carbos?

  • Fats (2X calories/gm) but produce ketones

  • Protein produces ammonia!!

  • We utilize some of each but in small amounts


Why are virtually all living things aerobes l.jpg
Why are virtually all living things aerobes??

  • There’s lotsa O2

  • Mitochondria

  • MORE ATP/glucose!

  • Protective enzymes (SOD, catalase, etc)


Summary quiz l.jpg
Summary Quiz

  • What are the reactants of aerobic respiration?? Products? Equation?

  • List the three respiratory stages:

    • Where in the cell do each occur?

    • What are the products of each?

  • Why is oxygen needed?

  • How much ATP is produced by

    • Anaerobic gylcolysis?

    • Aerobic glycolysis?

  • List the 2 types of fermentation??