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4.1.6(b) Uses of ICT in Education/1 Use of computers for teaching and learning. Starter:. How do you use ICT as part of your learning? (5 mins ). Computer-assisted learning (CAL).
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4.1.6(b) Uses of ICT in Education/1Use of computers for teaching and learning
Starter: How do you use ICT as part of your learning? (5 mins)
Computer-assisted learning (CAL) Covers a whole range of computer based packages which aim to provide interactive instruction in a particular area or on a certain subject. • CAL software can be run straight from a DVD or CD. • It can be installed and run from a network on its own or in conjunction with a VLE (virtual learning enviroment) • It can be run over the internet CAL consists of sum of the following features: • Tutorials • Simulations (eg theory tests) • Animations • Drill and practice • Tests • Games
Computer-based training (CBT) Uses ICT systems for training in the workplace, usually by making use of PC’s or portable devices. CBT can be used for: • Health and safety training (how to spot dangers in the workplace) • How to perform a particular job (e.g. how to operate a piece of equipment or machinery). • Induction courses • Flight simulation courses for pilots • Instruction on how to use a particular piece of software.
Features of CAL/CBT • Highly interactive • Makes use of multimedia features • Used for tutorials • Uses models/simulations • Used for revision • Encouragement (usually shows the correct answer) • Games to make learning fun • Testing and assessment • Distance learning
Advantages of CAL/CBT • Students have flexibility as to where and when they want to learn. • Materials are provided in lots of different ways (text, voice, video etc). • Can access the material using a variety of different hardware e.g. laptop, PDS, mobile phone etc.) • Can learn in many different enviroments e.g. a car, while out running etc. • Keep people using them interested and motivated by the variety of activities. Disadvantages of CAL/CBT • The software is complex and uses lots of animation and graphics – expensive. • Students need the interaction of their classmates in order to learn. • Can present an opportunity for students to have a break rather than work on the CAL/CBT package. • It is hard for teachers to gauge progress using some of the packages.
Distance learning Learning which takes place away from the traditional teacher/student classroom. It is done in some schools where only a few students want to take a particular course. Many universities also offer distance learning courses which allow adults to fit in degree study with their job and family commitments. It makes use of: • E-mail • Chat rooms • Videoconferencing
On-line learning/e-learning Authoring software can be used to create multimedia products which can be used to teach a particular subject. If it is placed on-line it is called e-learning. You can do a variety of courses such as: • GSCE and A-levels • Degree courses from universities • Language courses • Courses for professional qualifications • Job-based courses
Distance/On-line learning Advantages: • Students can work at their own pace • They do not have to worry about getting things wrong • Students will get immediate feedback • No set lesson times • Can fit learning around work and family commitments • Wide range of subjects Disadvantages: • No social side • Lack of flexibility (human teachers can explain things in different ways to help you) • Expensive • Hard to work in isolation • Need to be motivated • Need more self control
Videoconferencing Enables two or more individuals in different locations to see and talk to each other and exchange audio, video or any other digital file. It is used in schools for: • Distance learning (may link up with another organisation to provide a wider variety of AS and A-level subjects). • Conferences for schools (lectures given by scientists on real-life topics). • Virtual trips (museums, art galleries etc). • Collaborative working
Chat rooms for discussion with tutors/experts Carefully controlled and moderated chat rooms are very useful for students who are learnings a subject on their own. • Can be used to question an expert • Used to hold tutorials with course tutors • Ideal for students who are learning a foreign language
Features of software packages Many different types of software packages are used for teaching and learning: • Presentation software • Software to be used with interactive whiteboards • Tutorial software • Revision software
Revision Programs E.g. GCSE Bitesize Revision programs are software that help you revise for your exams. They provide a good and often fun way of building up knowledge about a subject and make use of multimedia features.
Authoring Software Authoring is the process of creating a multimedia product such as a website, an interactive presentation, an interactive learning tool for CAL/CBT or instructional software for an electronic whiteboard. Multimedia elements are combined to produce a multimedia product which makes use of the following: • Text • Graphics • Audio • Video • Game • Quizzes • Tests • Links to websites • animations • The authoring software is used to add a structure to all the above components so that the multimedia product functions as a whole and enables the material to be used interactively. • If you want to create a multimedia product you have two choices: • You can design the product and then use a programming language to produce it. • You can use authoring software.
Authoring Software (rather than programming code) Advantages: • A novice can use the authoring software • No programming needed • Faster to develop an e-learning product • Background programming code is automatically added to communicate test results, bookmarking and other information back to the author. Disadvantages: • Not as flexible, you have to adapt the way you want to solve the problem. • Not able to perform certain tasks.
Interactive whiteboards They allow lessons or lectures to be more engaging and exciting. They are modern replacements for ordinary whiteboards and flipcharts and they can be used to show anything that can be made to appear on a computer screen.
Practice questions • Interactice whiteboards are used extensively in schools. Explain, by referring to an example you have seen, how the use of these boards improves teaching and learning for students. (4) 2. Here is a statement which appeared recently in an article in the computer press on training methods: ‘Computer-based training/computer-assisted learning is little more than an electornic page-turning exercise that is hardly any different from reading a manual or book’. From your experience of CBT/CAL packages, write a short piece in reply to the above argument, saying whether you agree or disagree with the statement and supporting your argument with examples of CBT/CAL which you have used or seen. (8)
Practice Questions: 3. Many schools use CAL packages to help with teaching and learning. Schools also make use of distance/on-line learning to help with teaching and learning. • Give two advantages and two disadvantages in using distance/on-line learning. (4) • CAL pacakages are sometimes used with pupils who have learning difficulties. Give two advantages and two disadvantages in using CAL pacakages with these students. Your answers must be different from those for part (a). (4)
Plenary • Write your own exam question on this topic (3 mins) • Swap with your peer so they can answer this question. (5mins)
Extra links: http://www.teach-ict.com/gcse/theory/education/miniweb/pg9.htm