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TEACHING READING REALLY IS ROCKET SCIENCE. IT IS AN ENORMOUSLY- COMPLEX ACT. Donald N. Langenberg, Chair National Reading Panel Chancellor, University of Maryland. Speaking and listening come first. But learning to read is, without question, the top priority in elementary education.

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slide1
TEACHING READING

REALLY IS

ROCKET SCIENCE.

IT IS AN ENORMOUSLY-

COMPLEX ACT.

Donald N. Langenberg, Chair

National Reading Panel

Chancellor, University of Maryland

slide2
Speaking and listening come first. But learning to read is, without question, the top priority in elementary education.

Boyer, 1995, p.69

slide3
“Yes, parents may have the greatest impact on how their children come to us. But we have the greatest impact on how they leave us.”

Superintendent, North Carolina

the simple view of reading
The Simple View of Reading

R = D x C

(Phil Gough)

slide6
Fluency

Word Recognition & Comprehension

what are the essential components
What are the Essential Components?
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Vocabulary development
  • Reading fluency
  • Reading comprehension

The Fab Five!

slide8

Classroom organization

  • Matching pupils and texts
  • Access to interesting texts, choice, and collaboration
  • Writing and reading
what are the major findings
What are the Major Findings?
  • Most children need explicit instruction in decoding and comprehension.
  • While fluency isn’t sufficient for comprehension, it is absolutely necessary for good comprehension.
  • Assessment and instruction are inextricably linked.
  • Writing, spelling, and reading are highly related, especially in the early stages of learning to read.
  • Children should spend more time independently reading and writing.
  • Children not reaching benchmarks benefit from daily intensive instruction.
changing emphasis of big ideas
Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas

Letter Sounds

& Combinations

Multisyllables

Listening

Reading

Listening

Reading

slide13

The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth/Academic Achievement

16

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

High Oral Language in Kindergarten

5.2 years difference

Reading Age Level

Low Oral Language in Kindergarten

(Hirsch, 1996)

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Chronological Age

the reading gap
The Reading Gap

Target

Actual

Target: 85-90% of students can handle grade level material.

Actual: Where schools say they are.

The difference between the Target and Actual levels is the Reading Gap that can only be closed by comprehensive literacy strategies at the school level.

slide22
Reading rate is correlated with many other student characteristics that also influence reading comprehension.

Vocabulary = .99

% F/R Lunch = .97

% Minority = .97

% ELL = .96

slide24

Oral Reading Fluency Goals

Grades 1 – 2

2-3 words per week

Grades 3 – 5

1½-2 words per week

slide26

Kindergarten vocabulary (PPVT) is closely related to later reading comprehension

End of Grade One -- .45

End of Grade Four -- .62

End of Grade Seven -- .69

The relationship of vocabulary to reading comprehension gets stronger as texts become more complex. (Snow, 2002)

comprehensive vocabulary development
Comprehensive Vocabulary Development
  • Wide reading
  • Direct teaching of important words
  • Teaching word learning strategies
  • Fostering word consciousness
slide28

Magic Number = 1,000,000 words read per year

For a child who reads 15-200 words per minute, reading 20 minutes per day will yield 1,000,000 words read in a year.

Anticipated vocabulary growth:

1,000 – 4,000 new words learned

slide29
Tier One:
  • The most basic words
  • Rarely require instruction in school
  • Examples: happy, bed, school
slide30

High-frequency words for mature language users

Tier Two:

  • Instruction adds productivity to an individual’s language ability
  • Examples: coincidence, absurd, industrious
slide31
Tier Three:
  • Words whose frequency of use is quite low, often limited to specific domains
  • Best learned when needed in a content area
  • Examples: isotope, lathe, peninsula
slide32
Prior Knowledge . . .

Better than I.Q. for predicting success on inferential comprehension.

types of prior knowledge
Types of Prior Knowledge
  • Topic knowledge
  • Text structure and organization
  • Vocabulary
slide34
The punter kicked the ball.

The baby kicked the ball.

The golfer kicked the ball.

How did the ball change?

slide35
Mary Lou’s heart was pounding as she stood on the highest portion of the platform, flanked by a Japanese and a Rumanian. The last two years had been worth it!
today s cricket
Today’s Cricket

The batsmen were merciless against the bowlers. The bowlers placed their men in slips and covers, but to no avail. The batsmen hit one foul after another with an occasional six. Not once did a ball look like it would hit their stumps or be caught.

slide37

Accurate and fluent word reading skills

Proficient comprehension of text is influenced by:

  • Oral language skills
  • Extent of conceptual and factual knowledge
  • Knowledge and skill in use of cognitive strategies to improve comprehension or repair it when it breaks down.
  • Reasoning and inferential skills
  • Motivation to understand and interest in task and materials
three major strategies to teach comprehension
Three Major Strategies to Teach Comprehension
  • Reading a lot
  • Strategic reading
  • Deep discussions about books or articles
slide39

Two Approaches

  • Competent reader strategies
  • Text structure strategies
the big five
The Big Five
  • Predict and Infer
  • Self-Question
  • Monitor and Clarify
  • Evaluate and Determine Importance
  • Summarize and Synthesize
slide41
Narrative Structure (Story Grammar)

Expository (Informational) Structure

slide42
The effectiveness of instruction in comprehension strategies depends critically on how they are taught, supported, and practiced.
slide43
An explicit description of the strategy and when and how it should be used.
  • Teacher and/or student modeling of the strategy in action.
  • Collaborative use of the strategy in action to construct meaning of text.
  • Guided practice using the strategy with gradual release of responsibility – scaffolding by the teacher.
  • Independent use of the strategy.
slide44

Engaged Readers

  • Meaningful conceptual content in reading instruction increases motivation for reading and text comprehension.
  • Giving students choices of texts, responses, or partners during instruction.
  • Have an abundance of interesting texts available at the right reading level for every student.
  • Allow students the opportunity to work collaboratively with ample opportunities for discussion, questioning, and sharing.