TEACHING READING REALLY IS ROCKET SCIENCE. IT IS AN ENORMOUSLY- COMPLEX ACT. Donald N. Langenberg, Chair National Reading Panel Chancellor, University of Maryland. Speaking and listening come first. But learning to read is, without question, the top priority in elementary education.
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IT IS AN ENORMOUSLY-
Donald N. Langenberg, Chair
National Reading Panel
Chancellor, University of Maryland
Boyer, 1995, p.69
Superintendent, North Carolina
R = D x C
Word Recognition & Comprehension
The Fab Five!
The Effects of Weaknesses in Oral Language on Reading Growth/Academic Achievement
High Oral Language in Kindergarten
5.2 years difference
Reading Age Level
Low Oral Language in Kindergarten
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Target: 85-90% of students can handle grade level material.
Actual: Where schools say they are.
The difference between the Target and Actual levels is the Reading Gap that can only be closed by comprehensive literacy strategies at the school level.
Vocabulary = .99
% F/R Lunch = .97
% Minority = .97
% ELL = .96
Grades 1 – 2
2-3 words per week
Grades 3 – 5
1½-2 words per week
Kindergarten vocabulary (PPVT) is closely related to later reading comprehension
End of Grade One -- .45
End of Grade Four -- .62
End of Grade Seven -- .69
The relationship of vocabulary to reading comprehension gets stronger as texts become more complex. (Snow, 2002)
For a child who reads 15-200 words per minute, reading 20 minutes per day will yield 1,000,000 words read in a year.
Anticipated vocabulary growth:
1,000 – 4,000 new words learned
Better than I.Q. for predicting success on inferential comprehension.
The baby kicked the ball.
The golfer kicked the ball.
How did the ball change?
The batsmen were merciless against the bowlers. The bowlers placed their men in slips and covers, but to no avail. The batsmen hit one foul after another with an occasional six. Not once did a ball look like it would hit their stumps or be caught.
Proficient comprehension of text is influenced by:
Expository (Informational) Structure