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The Mongol Empire
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  1. The Mongol Empire Chapter 12 section 3

  2. Key Terms • Kublai Khan • Marco Polo

  3. Kublai Khan Becomes Emperor • Armies overwhelmed the Chinese 1279 • Had fought invasions of northern nomads • First time a foreigner ruled the whole country • Founded the Yuan Dynasty

  4. Beginning a New Dynasty • Lasted less than a century • United chins for first time in 300 years • Considered one of the greatest emperors • Opened china to more foreign trade • Made few changes in culture or government

  5. Beginning a New Dynasty • Abandoned the Asian steppes foe China • Lived a luxurious life • Built new square walled capitol in Beijing • Previous Khans ruled from Mongolia • Move was for Kublai to mark his mark on China

  6. Failure to Conquer Japan • Tried in 1274 and 1281 • Sent huge fleets • Mongols forced Koreans to build the boats • Task almost ruined Korea • Second fleet carried 150,000 warriors

  7. Failure to Conquer Japan • Largest seaborne invasion prior to World War II • Fought for 53 days • Typhoon destroyed their navy • Kamikaze- divine wind

  8. Mongol Rule in China • “One can conquer on horseback, but cannot govern on horseback” • Few Mongols in China • Made use of Chinese officials

  9. The Mongols and the Chinese • Little in common with the Chinese • Kept separate identity • Kept Chines out of the high government jobs • Went to Mongols or foreigners • Restored Grand Canal and extended it 135 miles

  10. The Mongols and the Chinese • Built paved highway 1100 miles • Land and water routes provided the North with grain and goods

  11. Foreign Trade • Increased under Kublai Khan • Due to Mongol Peace • Caravans traded silk and porcelain • Called the Silk Roads • Inventions • Gunpowder, compass, playing cards, paper currency

  12. Foreign Trade • Invited foreigners merchants to China • Most were Muslims from India • European traders and travelers • Christian missionaries

  13. Marco Polo at the Mongol Court • Venetian trader • Most famous visitor • Traveled by caravan with his uncles • Khan sent him on government missions • Served Khan for 17 years • Left China 1292

  14. Marco Polo at the Mongol Court • Polo was captured during a war • Told his story in prison • Spoke of china’s cities of coal (burning black stones) • Recorded workings of Kublai Khan’s government

  15. The End of Mongol Rule • Tried to expand empire • Suffered defeats • Heavy spending on public works, luxuries burdened the treasury • Created resentment from overtaxed Chinese

  16. Yuan Dynasty Overthrown • Khan died in 1294 • Four different rulers in 8 years • Rebellions broke out • Fueled by famine, flood, and disease • 1368 Chinese rebels overthrew the Mongols

  17. Decline of the Mongol Empire • Entire Mongol empire disintegrated • Ilkhanate in Persia fell apart in 1330’s • Chagatai rule central Asia till 1370 • Golden Horde ruled Russia for 250 years • Ivan freed Russia in 1480