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The Mongol Empire

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Chapter 11 Section 2. The Mongol Empire. Key Terms. Khan Genghis Khan Pax Mongolia Kublai Kahn Marco Polo. Nomads and the Asia Steppe. Two Eurasia steppes Land trade route connector Home to nomadic people Plunder Loot Conquer their neighbors. Geography of the Steppe.

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key terms
Key Terms
  • Khan
  • Genghis Khan
  • Pax Mongolia
  • Kublai Kahn
  • Marco Polo
nomads and the asia steppe
Nomads and the Asia Steppe
  • Two Eurasia steppes
  • Land trade route connector
  • Home to nomadic people
    • Plunder
    • Loot
    • Conquer their neighbors
geography of the steppe
Geography of the Steppe
  • Western steppe central Asia
  • Home to the Hittites
  • Eastern steppe
  • Home to Huns, Turks and Mongols
  • Very little rain
  • Temps from -57 to 96
  • Climate milder in west
the nomadic way of life
The Nomadic Way of Life
  • Pastoralists-herded domestic animals
  • Searching for food
  • Followed seasonal patterns
  • Battles arose over water rights
  • Asian nomads lived on horsback
the nomadic way of life1
The Nomadic Way of Life
  • Depended on animals for
    • Food
    • Clothing
    • Housing
  • Diet was meat and maer’s milk
  • Clothing of skins and wool
  • Lived in tents called yurts
nomadic way of life
Nomadic Way of Life
  • Clans- kinship groups that traveled together
  • Descended from a common ancestor
  • Khan- chief or leader of a clan
steppes nomads and settled societies
Steppes, Nomads and Settled Societies
  • Peaceful trade
  • Exchanged horses for grain, metal and cloth
  • Prided themselves on toughness
  • Took what they wanted from towns people
  • Nomadic people eventually become part of who they conquer
the rise of the mongols
The Rise of the Mongols
  • Roamed the eastern steppe
  • Temujin unites the Mongols
  • 1206 accepts name Genghis Khan- universal ruler
  • 21 years led the Mongols to conquer much of Asia
the rise of mongols
The Rise of Mongols
  • Muslims murder traders and Ambassadors of Khan.
  • Launches campaign of terror across Central Asia
  • Destroy one city after another
  • 1225 Central Asia under Mongol control
genghis the conquer
Genghis the Conquer
  • Brilliant organizer
    • Armies of 10,000
    • 1,000 man brigades
    • 100 man companies
    • 10 man squads
  • Gifted strategists
    • Tricks to confuse the enemy
    • Small group draw in opposing army
genghis the conqueror
Genghis the Conqueror
  • Cruelty as a weapon
    • Terrifying into surrender
    • Don’t open gates, kill whole population
    • Most towns surrender
  • “In most countries that have not yet been overrun by them, everyone spends the night afraid they may appear there too”
the mongol empire
The Mongol Empire
  • Genghis Khan died 1227
  • Successors conquered from China to Poland
  • Largest unified empire in history
the khanates
The Khanates
  • Sons and grandsons continued conquests
  • Leveled Kiev, China, Korea, close to Venice
  • 1250 halted westward expansion
the khanates1
The Khanates
  • 1260 divided into four regions or khanates
    • Khanate of the great Khan (China, Mongolia)
    • Khanate of Chagatai
    • Ikhanate (Persia)
    • Khanate of the Golden Horde (Russia)
the mongols as rulers
The Mongols as Rulers
  • Populations of some cities were wiped out
  • Destroyed ancient irrigation systems
  • Tolerant in peace
  • Adopted some of existing cultures
  • Some became Muslims
  • Led to further splits
the mongol peace
The Mongol Peace
  • Pax Mongolica-1200-1300’s stability and law
  • Safe passage of trade caravans, travelers and missionaries
  • Trade between Europe and Asia increased
  • Bubonic plague possibly came from the Mongols
kublai khan rules china
Kublai Khan Rules China
  • Tried to gain loyalty of Chinese subjects
  • Did not force Chinese to adopt Mongol life
  • Moved capitol from Mongolia to Beijing
  • Adopted Chinese ceremonies
kublai kahn rules china
Kublai Kahn Rules China
  • Mongols lived apart from the Chinese
  • Friendships were discouraged
  • Intermarriage was forbidden
  • Chines not allowed to have weapons or serve in the military
  • Different laws for Mongols and Chinese
kublai kahn rules china1
Kublai Kahn Rules China
  • Distrusted Chinese and limited their power
  • Chinese officials serveda t the local level
  • Invited foreigners to hold government offices
  • Burdened Chinese with heavy taxes and laborers
foreign trade
Foreign Trade
  • Built enormous ships to improve trade
  • Welcomed foreign merchants
  • Offered traders special privileges
  • Merchants ands missionaries came to China
marco polo
Marco Polo
  • Italain trader from Venice
  • Kublia Kahn liked him
  • Sent Polo on missions for 17 years
  • Polo captured back in Italy
  • Told prisoners of his adventures
marco polo1
Marco Polo
  • Described grand palaces
  • Walls covered in giold and silver
  • Chinese postal system
  • Use of paper money
  • Size and splendor of China
end of yuan dynasty
End of Yuan Dynasty
  • Kublai Kahn had invaded Southeast Asia
  • Suffered huge losses
  • 900 Mongol ships attacked Japan
  • Most ships destroyed in a storm
  • Tried again with a larger fleet
end of the yuan dynasty
End of the Yuan Dynasty
  • Kamikaze- divine wind
  • Destroyed the fleet both times
  • Ecomony weak because of too much spending
  • After Khan’s death power struggle ensued