The Mongol Empire World History I
Who are the Mongols? • Homeland – Rugged steppe region north of China • Nomads • Depended upon animals (especially the horse) • Constantly searching for water and vegetation • Precarious (fragile, dangerous) lifestyle • At the mercy of nature • Relied upon trade with other civilizations in times of need • Mostly fought each other
Genghis Khan (1162 to 1227) • Especially fierce, powerful Mongol leader who Consolidates dispersed Mongolian tribes • Name means “Universal Ruler” • Creates a Mongolian Empire • Encouraged skills of battle and the mindset of a warrior – Brilliant strategist !!!!! • Advantage of cavalry over foot soldiers • Exceptional reflex Bow • Warfare was a way for individuals to gain honor, power and riches in Mongolian society
Early Mongolian Empire • GK turns aggressive Mongols toward conquest • As long as they are fighting others, they are not fighting themselves • By his death in 1227 GK captures Beijing, central Asia and most of Persia Label the Mongol homeland and draw Genghis's empire on your map
The Largest Empire EVER • Genghis’s sons and grandson expanded the empire into the largest in History. • Reached from Eastern Europe to the Pacific • Roughly the size of Africa • In less than 100 years !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
PaxMongolica(1200’s – 1300’s) • Once conquered, survivors enjoy protection and peace. • Mongols are very tolerant of all religions • They protect and promote trade along the silk road because they can tax it.
Expertise Spreads • Mongols recognize the superiority of the people they conquer • Put captured scholars, artisans, engineers, builders and BUREAUCRATS to work for the Kahn. • But the Mongols don’t trust the locals to rule, so bureaucrats from other lands are relocated.
The Empire Divides • Eventually, the huge empire is divided into 4 “Khanates” • Each is led by one of Ghengis’s grandsons Draw the Mongol empire on your map
Khanate of the Golden Horde • Takes most of Russia • Offers the Russians protection from Germans and other Europeans • But also isolates Russia from the Rennaissance !!! • Mongols agree to protect the Orthodox church from taxes, so it grows strong • Eventually defeats the Muslim Mongols
IL Khnate • Controls Persia • Converts to Muslims • Protects the religion during later Crusades • Eventually becomes absorbed into Persian/Turkish culture.
Chagatai Khanate • Controls Central Asia • 1220- late 1600’s • Also Muslim • Descendants become the Moghuls of India • Powerful Muslim rulers in India
Khanate of the Great KahnKublai Khan • Grandson of Genghis, • Conquers the rest of China, Tibet and Southeast Asia • Moves capital to Bejiing • tried but failed to conquer Japan • Establishes the Yuan Dynasty • 1st in northern China in 1271 • Then Conquers Southern Sung in 1279 • Adopts many Chinese beliefs, customs and institutions, tolerates others
Benefits of Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) • Improved the Grand Canal (longest canal in the World, 1,100 miles) • Instituted efficient government and postal system • Over 10,000 courier stations • Supported the arts • Increased trade with India and Persia • Allowed contact with Europe. Disadvantages of the Yuan Dynasty: • Had to pay tributes • Language barrier • Chinese were second-class citizens
Marco Polo (1254-1324) • Italian merchant and explorer • 1271 - 1295 Traveled, with his merchant dad & uncle, to Persia, Asia, And China • Became a member of Kublai Kahn’s court • Very impressed with the Mongol society • Coal, gunpowder, paper money, • Wrote a book that inspired Columbus to find an easy ocean path to China
Decline of the Yuan Reasons: • Huang He (Yellow) River floods causing destruction and famine • String of weak successors • Chinese unrest Replaced by the Ming dynasty
Mongolian Impact • Postal service & Messenger pigeons • Re-opened and secured silk road • Increased the amount of paper money in circulation • Spreads cultural and religious tolerance • Funded advances in medicine and astronomy • Prevents European expansion into Russia and Asia • Protects Muslim empire • Goes to India as the Moghuls
Read the Handout • Why were the Mongols militarily superior to their foes? • Compare the Mongol military strategy to the Code of Chivalry used by the Knights