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The Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire

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The Mongol Empire

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  1. The Mongol Empire (Wait for it…the Mongols!)

  2. The Geographic setting

  3. The Steppes • The Central Asian steppes are an almost unbroken band of treeless grasslands situated between the forests of the north and mountains and deserts of the south • From early times, nomadic peoples have lived in this area by herding horses, sheep, camels and goats (lots of pasture area) • The steppes provided a unique environment for these nomads to develop excellent horsemanship and fierce fighting skills • Throughout history, these peoples have pushed out of this region to conquer more civilized neighbors

  4. Apply it! • Why were the steppes a perfect area for the people who lived there? • Looking back at civilizations we’ve already discussed… • What were some tribes from this area that caused issues? • What areas did they conquer/invade?

  5. Central Asian Invaders • I need to put a map here!!!

  6. Central Asian invaders • The Huns , repelled by the Chinese emperors, invaded Europe and contributed to the collapse of the Roman Empire • Turks and Mongols also came out of Central Asia • Mongols came out of the area near modern day Mongolia • Northwest of China • Slept in domed tents • Excellent horsemen and archers • During the 1200s, the Mongols created the greatest empire the world had ever seen

  7. Apply it! • What is going on in Europe during the time of the Mongols? • What about in other parts of Asia?

  8. Chinggis Khan unites the mongols • Chinggis or Ghengis Khan united various Mongol tribes by 1206 • After he established himself as undisputed master of Mongolia, he set out on a career of conquest • Chinggis Khan began attacking neighboring peoples beyond Mongolia

  9. Chinggis Khan • Other civilizations had little chance against the 200,000 skilled Mongol horsemen riding with stirrups, carrying bamboo bows and attacking cities with catapults • The Mongols, under Chinggis Khan, became known for their fierce brutality • Sometimes killing all the defenders of a city if they refused to surrender • During their time, the Mongols were frequently called the Tartars

  10. Chinggis khan • Chinggis Khan attacked Northern China • Captured Beijing • Chinggis Khan captured Muslim states of Central Asia

  11. Chinggis khan • Although he was feared as a brutal warrior, Chinggis Khan was tolerant of other religions within his territories • He made use of local administrators and craftspeople • He promoted trade throughout the empire • He even ordered a written script of the Mongol language

  12. Chinggis khan • Under Chinggis Khan’s successors, Mongol rule extended into Persia, Russia, Iraq and the rest of China • The Mongols held one of the largest empire the world has ever seen • From the Black Sea to the Pacific Ocean (wow! that’s huge!) • Under this “Pax Mongolia,” people could safely trade from one end of the empire to the other • The Mongol Empire eventually was divided into four separate kingdoms, each ruled by a descendant of Chinggis Khan.

  13. Apply it! • Why (geographically, militarily and politically) was Chenggis Khan able to create such a large empire?

  14. Wait for it…the Mongols!

  15. YuaN Dynasty • Chinggis Khan’s Grandson, Kublai Khan was born a Mongolian but developed a fascination with Chinese culture, traditions and art • Kublai Khan became emperor of Northern China in 1260 • He later reunited North and South China under his rule • Mongols became his military aristocracy • Kublai Khan encouraged the Mongols to adopt Chinese ways and even adopted the Chinese name Yuan for his dynasty (which of course he claimed the Mandate of Heaven for)

  16. Marco Polo • No…not the poolside game! • A merchant from Venice, Marco Polo journeyed along the Silk Road and visited China in the 1270s • He was astounded by the magnificence of Kublai Khan’s court and the technological superiority of the Chinese over the Europeans • What had been going on in Europe at the time? • He was especially impressed by their use of gunpowder and burning of coal for heat

  17. Apply it! • What impact might Marco Polo’s travels have had on Europe? • How might this impact cause a decline in the Middle Ages and the Rise of the Renaissance?

  18. Mongol influence on Russia • Mongol warriors conquered most of Russia and controlled the area for the next 200 years • Mongol words, customs and clothing styles found their way into Russian Culture (Yo! What’s that called?)

  19. Mongol influence on Russia • Moscow and its surrounding territories, known as Muscovy, became the strongest Russian state

  20. Mongol influence on Russia • In 1480, Ivan the Great declared Muscovy’s independence from the Mongols • Ivan proclaimed himself Tsar (what’s that mean?) and set out to increase the size of Muscovy by conquering neighboring lands • Russia and wait for it…the Mongols!

  21. Tamerlane • Also known as Timur • A Turkish-Mongol ruler, Tamerlane expanded his kingdom into Persia, Afghanistan, Russia, Syria, Turkey and Northern India • He helped bring about a resurgence of Mongol power • Tamerlane was known for his brutality in war and massacre of civilians • His empire didn’t last long after his death

  22. Apply it! • Compare Chenggis Khan and Tamerlane • In what ways did the Mongols change the world! • In what ways are the Mongols the…wait for it…exception?

  23. Ming Dynasty • Mongols remained unpopular throughout China • Mongols were overthrown by a Chinese Monk, who established the Ming Dynasty • Under the Ming, China enjoyed peace and prosperity for 300 years • The Ming built the Forbidden City in Beijing

  24. Ming Dynasty • Two main classes of people arose in Ming China • Peasants, barely earning a living (majority) • Scholar-Gentry Class, owned land the peasants worked on • Respected learning, Confucian Ideals • The Ming Emperor sponsored several naval expeditions to spread news of China’s wealth and power • Zheng He sailed to the coasts of India and Arabia • But due to pressure from the nobles, the emperor stopped these voyages • Chinese believed their system was already a perfect balance and that change would be harmful

  25. Ming dynasty • When direct European contact occurred (Portuguese) , Catholics attempted to convert the Chinese • Ming China became involved in a pattern of global trade • China exported silk and porcelain to Europe • And Europe imported silver and new foods (sweet potatoes and corn)