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We all know that teaching vocabulary is important, yet …..

We all know that teaching vocabulary is important, yet …..

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We all know that teaching vocabulary is important, yet …..

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  1. We all know that teaching vocabulary is important, yet ….. Its not that we teach vocabulary it HOW we teach vocabulary.

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap A+ With Effective Vocabulary Instruction

  3. Top Secret Disclaimers • Yes we have No Panaceas! • Ooooh! I t’ink I saw a Frayer Model! • One thing that I know for certain is that I don’t know what I thought I knew! • You don’t always get what you want, but if you try real hard sometimes you get what you need!

  4. Training Goals • Understand the research behind effective vocabulary instruction • Visit the Six Steps of effective vocabulary instruction • Learn how to close the achievement gap by building background knowledge through direct vocabulary instruction • Make learning more perdurable

  5. And the researchers are ….! • Robert J. Marzano – • Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement • Building Academic Vocabulary • Classroom Instruction that Works • Debra J. Pickering • Building Academic Vocabulary • Classroom Instruction that Works • Eric Jensen • Brain Based Learning • Jane K. Doty • Teaching Reading in the Content Areas • Closing the Achievement Gap – Belinda Williams

  6. Closing the gap with our low performing students The research is very clear that students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and others with limited academic background knowledge are at a great disadvantage in our schools because they do not have the background knowledge that they need to be successful.

  7. Closing the gap with our low performing students Building academic background knowledge for students is essential if they are going to link new learning to what they already know.

  8. Closing the gap with our low performing students One of the most effective ways to build this academic background knowledge is through effective “direct” vocabulary instruction.

  9. And the research says….! Direct Vocabulary Instruction Works • Building Academic Vocabulary, 2

  10. What the Academic Research Says “…one compelling fact: what students already know about the content is one of the strongest indicators of how well they will learn new information about the content.” Robert J. Marzano, Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement

  11. What the Brain Research Says Orstein found that prior exposure to information speeds up learning. The brain looks for places to “compartmentalize” or “categorize” information… and Donchin found that the “greater amount of ‘priming’ stimulus, the more the brain extracted and ‘compartmentalized’ the information. Eric Jensen, Brain Based Learning

  12. What the Brain Research Says Information is stored both linguistically and non-linguistically. It is the combination of both of these that makes learning perdurable. Eric Jensen, Brain Based Learning

  13. Review • For information to be stored in long term memory (background knowledge) it has to find a ‘compartment’ or category in the brain to reside. (In Social Studies we often call these “concepts.”) • Low achieving students generally lack these categories or compartments because they have not been exposed to enough stimuli (linguistic and non-linguistic)

  14. Our Goal To build background knowledge through researched based strategies that effectively help our students build categories to store new information.

  15. Please read aloud the following>>> • And just how do we go about doing this?

  16. Instructional Strategies & Effects on Achievement Marzano’s Nine

  17. Instructional Strategies & Effects on Achievement

  18. So how does this work? Lets watch your brain at work. What categories do you use to store information? Do your students have the same ones?

  19. What do “your” categories tell you to do with this information? In the early 1860’s a ________issued the Emancipation ___________. This order freed millions of s________. The C_______ had the authority to enforce this order. Emancipation alone did not give the former ________ a new life. Decades of e_________ hardship and unequal rights continued. A______________ Plan was supported by many R____________. Page 1 in Handout

  20. What do “your” categories tell you to do with information? • In the early 1860’s a Russian issued the Emancipation Manifesto. This order freed millions of serfs. The Czar had the authority to enforce this order. Emancipation alone did not give the former serfs a new life. Decades of economic hardship and unequal rights continued. Alexander’s Plan was supported by many Russians.

  21. So what do we do? Please read aloud the following>>> • To make sure that our students are going to the right categories we need to build these categories with good vocabulary instruction and stuff them full of good vocabulary terms.

  22. Five Statements from current research about Vocabulary . . . • Students need to be exposed to a word at least six times in context before they have enough experience with the word to ascertain its meaning and make it perdurable. • Even superficial instruction in new words enhances the probability that students will understand the words when they encounter them. Jane K. Doty, MCREL

  23. Five Statements from current research about Vocabulary . . . • One of the best ways to learn a new word is to associate a mental image or symbolic representation with it. • Direct vocabulary instruction works. Teaching new vocabulary directly increases student comprehension of new materials. Jane K. Doty, MCREL

  24. Five Statements from current research about Vocabulary . . . • Direct instruction on words that are critical to new content produces the most powerful learning. Jane K. Doty, MCREL Selecting these words that are “critical” is essential.

  25. Word of the day! • To fail to keep prescribed gait • To become fair • To alter sharply a direction or course • To reduce in rank • To come into being as bursting forth • To open spontaneously as with the surf • To make ineffective as a binding force • To separate into parts with sudden force BREAK!

  26. Now to the “How To”

  27. Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction(Marzano, 2005) • Provide description, explanation or example of the new term • Students restate the explanation of the new term in their own words • Students create a nonlinguistic representation of the term Page 1

  28. Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction(Marzano, 2005) • Students periodically do activities that help them add to their knowledge of vocabulary terms • Comparing Terms • Classifying Terms • Generating Metaphors • Generating Analogies • Revising Initial Descriptions or Nonlinguistic Representations • Understanding the roots and affixes

  29. Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction (Marzano, 2005) • Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another • Should occur as a regular part of SS instruction • Pose questions to stimulate discussion • Raise questions and issues about terms

  30. Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction (Marzano, 2005) • Periodically engage students in games that allow them to play with the terms Examples: Word Splash, Flash Cards, Loop Cards, etc. Resources Available: TEKS Vocabulary Flashcards, Word Splashes & Word Walls for Grades 5-11 www.esc13.net/socialstudies www.tea.state.tx.us/ssc

  31. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Step 1: Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term. Diffusion Diffusion is the process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or group to another across space. There are two types of diffusion: relocation diffusion, i.e., when people move and take with them their culture; and expansion diffusion, i.e., when information about a new idea or innovation spreads throughout a society. The spread of linguistic or cultural practices or innovations within a community or from one community to another.

  32. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Step 1: Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term. Diffusion Diffusion is the process by which an idea or innovation is transmitted from one individual or group to another across space. There are two types of diffusion: relocation diffusion, i.e., when people move and take with them their culture; and expansion diffusion, i.e., when information about a new idea or innovation spreads throughout a society.

  33. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Step 1: Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term. Emancipation To free someone from bondage

  34. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Step 1: Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term. Emancipation Czar Alexander “emancipated”, or freed the Russian serfs in 1861. Abraham Lincoln “emancipated”, or freed the slaves in the south in 1863.

  35. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Step 2: Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words. Notes: Pertinent to our study Adapted from ASCD Page 2

  36. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Step 2: Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words. Native American Native American Native means the first people who lived somewhere so Native American means the first people who lived in America. They lived here before it was called America. We used to call them Indians, but that did not make sense. They weren’t from India. Notes: Pertinent to our study The Natives Americans who lived in East Texas were called Caddo Indians. They live in grass houses and traded with lots of other Indians.

  37. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Step 2: Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words. Evolution Notes: Pertinent to our study Adapted from ASCD Page 2

  38. Centralization Decentralization A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Step 3: Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the term or phrase. Debra J. Pickering

  39. Step 3: Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representing the term or phrase. Baghdad

  40. Pay day!! Income tax is the money we pay to the government that they use to provide things we all need, like roads. The money is taken out of our paychecks. Debra J. Pickering

  41. Some challenges you might encounter

  42. Challenge: The students—and you—are having trouble representing the term. Suggestions: Practice creating nonlinguistic representations • Types of pictures: • Draw the actual thing. • Use a symbol. • Draw an example. • Represent the idea with graphics. • Dramatize the drawing with cartoon bubbles. Debra J. Pickering

  43. Types of pictures: • Draw the actual thing. Abraham Lincoln Debra J. Pickering

  44. Types of pictures: • Use a symbol.

  45. When possible, try to build into the picture a way of attaching the picture to the word. Laaaatitude Loooongitude Latitude—imaginary lines around Earth parallel to equator Longitude—imaginary lines around Earth that go through North and South Pole and are perpendicular to the equator Debra J. Pickering

  46. Application for Visual Representation I didn’t put my grades in I have to go to a workshop The sand is warm I forgot what relaxation was like My feet and back don’t hurt at 4:00PM Students not in school Summer Draw a Visual Representation of

  47. Review for a Break • Review the Six Steps to Vocabulary Instruction on page 1 • Identify which is the most important step for your student and explain why this is so to your table mates. • Be prepared to share with the whole group.

  48. Six Steps to Effective Vocabulary Instruction • Provide description, explanation or example of the new term • Students restate the explanation of the new term in their own words • Students create a nonlinguistic representation of the term • Students periodically do activities that help them add to their knowledge of vocabulary terms • Periodically ask students to discuss the terms with one another • Periodically engage students in games that allow them to play with the terms

  49. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Step 4: Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of categories (Concepts). Free Association Comparing Terms Classifying Terms Solving Analogy Problems Creating Metaphors

  50. A Six-Step Process for Teaching New Terms Step 4: Engage students periodically in activities that help them add to their knowledge of categories (Concepts). Free Association Iraq Oil Afghanistan Middle East Conflict Israel-Palestine Dry Climate