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Middle Childhood: Physical Development. With thanks to Cindy Karlson. Growth Patterns. Middle childhood: 6 to 12 years Height & Weight Boys and girls grow about 2 inches a year Adolescent growth spurt Average weight gain is 5 to 7 pounds per year

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middle childhood physical development
Middle Childhood:Physical Development

With thanks to Cindy Karlson

growth patterns
Growth Patterns
  • Middle childhood: 6 to 12 years
  • Height & Weight
    • Boys and girls grow about 2 inches a year
    • Adolescent growth spurt
    • Average weight gain is 5 to 7 pounds per year
    • Individual differences are normal in middle childhood
      • Weight may vary by 30 to 35 pounds
  • 4 to 6 year olds need 1,800 calories
  • 7 to 10 years olds need 2,000 calories
  • Recommended: fruits, vegetables, fish, poultry, whole grains
  • Limit: fats, sugars, and starches
  • Nutrition at schools.
  • SES and nutrition
    • Low SES is related to higher intake of fats and fast foods
    • Middle SES is related to limited intake of fast foods and carbonated drinks
gender differences
Gender Differences
  • Boys are slightly taller and heavier than girls through 9 or 10
  • Girls then begin adolescent growth spurt
  • Boys begins adolescent growth spurt at age 13 or 14
  • Muscular strength increases for both girls and boys
    • Around age 11 boys begin to develop more muscle tissue than girls.
childhood obesity
Childhood Obesity
  • Definition of obesity: body weight in excess of 20% of norm
  • Obesity is the second leading cause of death in the US
  • 60% of American adults are overweight
  • 30% of American children are overweight, while 16% are obese
  • 35-40% of African American and Hispanic American children are overweight, while 24% of AA and HA children are obese
  • Despite emphasis on fitness and health, obesity has increased across ages, races, and genders
  • Most overweight children become overweight adults
  • 40% of normal weight children become obese adults.
childhood obesity7
Childhood Obesity
  • Research suggests that overweight children are often rejected by peers
  • Perform poorly in sports
  • Tend to like their bodies less than children of normal weight
  • More likely to be depressed and anxious than peers of normal weight
  • Hypertension, Type II diabetes, asthma, sleeping problems are all associated with obesity.
causes of obesity
Causes of Obesity
  • Heredity
    • Burn calories vs. turn extra calories into fat
    • Identical twins
    • Inherited rate of matabolism
  • Adipose tissue (fat cells)
    • Children who have more adipose tissue tend to become hungry quicker, even though they are the same weight
  • Modeling by parents
    • Exercise habits
    • Encourage overeating
    • wrong foods
  • Stressors and emotional reactions promote overeating.
causes of obesity cont
Causes of Obesity Cont.
  • PE taken out of schools
  • Wrong food in schools
  • Role of TV:
    • 25% of kids watch 4+ hrs a day
    • Kids who watch TV more than 25 hours a week are more overweight
    • Consumption of snack foods
    • Commercials promoting eating junk food
    • Sedentary activity.
daily activities11
Daily Activities
  • 4 hours of TV = ¼ of waking hours
treating childhood obesity
Treating Childhood Obesity
  • 1. Proportion sizes, 2. food in schools, 3. increase PE in schools, 4. reduce TV hours, 5. increase exercise, 6. proper nutrition
  • Congressional Bills:
    • Formation of a Congressional Council on Childhood Obesity
      • Goal to encourage every elementary school and middle school to develop and implement a plan to reduce obesity, promote improved nutrition, and increase physical activity
  • Bariatric & Gastric Bypass Surgery
  • Am. Obesity Association: http://www.obesity.org.
exercise fitness
Exercise & Fitness
  • Exercise reduces risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer
  • Psychological benefits: better self-image, better coping skills
  • Cardiac and muscular fitness is developed by participation in continuous exercise, such as running, walking, swimming, bicycling, or jumping rope
  • Nearly 2/3 of American children fail to meet the standards set by the President’s Council of Physical Fitness
    • Strength
    • Flexibility
    • Cardiovascular Endurance.
childhood disabilities
Childhood Disabilities
  • Intellectual Functioning
    • Mental retardation
  • Learning Disabilities
    • Dyslexia (reading disability)
    • Dyscalculia (mathematics disability)
    • Disorder of written expression
  • Speech disorders
    • Articulation disorder
    • Voice disorders
    • Fluency disorders
  • Physical disabilities
    • Visual impairment
    • Hearing impairment
    • Paralysis
  • Social and Emotional Disorders
    • Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder
    • Autism
    • Conduct disorder
    • Childhood depression
    • Childhood anxiety.
learning disabilities
Learning Disabilities
  • A learning disability is characterizes by inadequate development of specific academic, language, and speech skills
  • Dyslexia: a reading disorder characterized by problems such as letter reversals, mirror reading, slow reading, and reduced comprehension
    • Estimated to affect 5% to 17.5% of American children
    • More common in boys than girls.
causes of dyslexia
Causes of Dyslexia
  • Genetic factors
    • 25-60% of children who have dyslexia, have one parent who also has dyslexia
    • 40% of siblings of children with dyslexia also have dyslexia
  • “Faulty wiring” in left side of brain
    • Angular gyrus: translates visual input into audio information.
treating dyslexia
Treating Dyslexia
  • Early treatment focuses on remediation
    • Structured exercises to help kids become aware of how to blend sounds to form words
    • Identifying word pairs that rhyme and don’t rhyme
    • Combining modalities such as vision & hearing
  • More recent treatment focuses on accommodation
    • More time to take tests
  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
    • Child shows developmentally inappropriate or excessive inattention, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity
    • Onset occurs by age 7
    • Behavior pattern must have persisted at least 6 months
    • Impairs ability to function in school
  • Difficulty getting along with others
  • Disruptive and non-compliant behavior often elicits punishment
  • More common in boys than girls
  • Prevalence is 3-7% of school age children
  • Diagnosed by history, self-report, and observation from significant others
  • Deficits in executive functioning in those who present with hyperactivity and impulsivity
    • Inability to self-monitor and self-control
  • Some go on to develop Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD).
challenges of adhd
Challenges of ADHD
  • Organizational problems
  • Problems with Transitions
  • Acting as if rules don’t apply to them
  • Adopting negative attitudes out of frustration
  • Experiencing isolation from peers
  • Poor grades, different learning styles
  • Impulsive behavior
  • Difficulty sustaining attention
  • Disruption of sleep or apitite.
causes of adhd
Causes of ADHD
  • Runs in families
  • Co-exist with anxiety, depression and tic disorders
  • Less blood flow to the frontal lobes
  • Defect in thyroid system or RAS
  • Encephalitis
  • Family history alcoholism, smoking, depression
  • Frequent early ear infections as a marker.
treatment of adhd
Treatment of ADHD
  • Combination of medication and behavioral therapy
  • Stimulants are most common medication
    • Ritalin, Adderall, Concerta , Dexedrin and Strattera
  • Behavioral interventions aimed at increasing structure at home and school
    • Parents and teachers are active participants
      • E.g.) “chunking” assignments
      • E.g.) cues to promote self-awareness
    • Parent training, family therapy, support groups
  • Some children outgrow ADHD
    • 50% to 65% of children with ADHD continue to have symptoms into adulthood.
education for children with disabilities
Education for Children with Disabilities
  • Should children with learning disabilities be placed in regular classrooms?
  • Segregated classes
  • Mainstreaming: children with disabilities are placed in classrooms that have been adapted to fit their needs
    • Intended to counter negative effects of special needs classes
    • 40% of day spent in regular classrooms
  • Research findings are mixed
    • High functioning
    • Lower functioning..